Farming is one of the key areas of the agricultural industry. The production value of the crop industry accounts for 64-68% of the production value of the entire agricultural sector. In 2021, the weather is quite favorable for plants to grow and develop, so most crops are quite productive. Despite being affected by the complicated developments of the Covid-19 pandemic to the production, harvesting and consumption of agricultural products, the field of cultivation still grew steadily.
The weather is quite favorable with the close attention of the Government and all levels and professional branches; the efforts, overcoming difficulties and creativity of farmers across, the productivity of most crops is quite good compared to the previous year, the output of crop products fully meets domestic and export demand. In general, in 2021, the total production of grain foods reached 48.31 million tons, an increase of nearly 1 million tons compared to the previous year.
The crop structure continues to convert from inefficient annual crop areas to other crops with higher economic value such as converting drought, salinity or inefficient rice cultivation areas to vegetables, crops, perennial industrial plants and fruit trees create products that are consumed by both domestic and foreign markets with higher value than rice. For each type of tree, both restructure the area and change the suitable plant varieties for high yield and good product quality.
Rice is the main annual crop of our country. Rice production marked a successful year of rice production with increased yield in all seasons, the total rice cultivation area in 2021 reached 7.24 million hectares, although down by 38.3 thousand hectares compared to the previous year but the average yield for the whole year was high with 60.6 quintals/ha, an increase of 1.8 quintals/ha; rice production reached 43.88 million tons, up to 1.1 million tons.
spring crop is the rice crop with the largest proportion of output in the year, accounting for nearly 47% of the whole year’s rice production. The area of spring rice cultivation in 2021 nationwide reached 3,006.8 thousand hectares, equal to 99.4% of the previous year’s spring crop due to the trend of urbanization, labor shift and restructuring of crop production. Yield reached 68.6 quintals/ha, an increase of 2.9 quintals/ha, output reached 20,629.5 thousand tons, an increase of 755.1 thousand tons compared to the previous year’s spring crop. In which, the northern provinces, the yield was 52.7 quintals/ha, an increase of 0.6 quintals/ha, the output was 7,004.1 thousand tons, an increase of 128.7 thousand tons; In the southern provinces, the yield reached 71 quintals/ha, an increase of 3.5 quintals/ha, the output reached 13,625.4 thousand tons, an increase of 626.4 thousand tons. The results of spring rice production are achieved due to favorable weather, reasonable irrigation water supply, timely control and eradication of pests, diseases help to rice good growth. Some provinces have productivity and production of spring rice increased much over the same period, such as: Kien Giang, the yield increased by 3 quintals/ha, the output increased by 43.8 thousand tons; Long An’s yield increased by 1.4 quintals/ha, output increased by 28.4 thousand tons; Ninh Thuan’s yield increased by 1.6 quintals/ha, output increased by 38.7 thousand tons.
The production results of this year’s autumn crop increased significantly compared to the previous year. The area of autumn rice cultivation in 2021 nationwide will reach 1,954.2 thousand hectares, an increase of 9.1 thousand hectares compared to the autumn crop in 2020; yield reached 57 quintals/ha, an increase of 1.7 quintals/ha; output reached 11.14 million tons, up to 389.1 thousand tons. Cultivated area and yield of autumn rice increased mainly in the North Central region with an increase of 2.4% in area, an increase of 10% in output and an increase of 12.9% in the Central Coast region, with output up 11.7%. The localities that increased the most were: Khanh Hoa with an increase of 11.2 thousand hectares and an increase of 67 thousand tons; Binh Dinh increased by 3.2 thousand hectares and by 20.5 thousand tons; Quang Ngai increased by 2.6 thousand hectares and increased by 13.6 thousand tons… because in 2020 this area is heavily affected by drought, lack of irrigation water, this year the weather is favorable, the water source is enough supply so production should be gradually restored. Autumn yield also increased in all regions of the country, of which the highest increase was in the North Central region at 51.6 quintals/ha, up 3 quintals/ha; followed by the Mekong River Delta with 57.4 quintals/ha, an increase of 1.5 quintals/ha.
The autumn-winter rice crop is mainly in the Mekong Delta, so the area and output are often lower than other rice crops. The preliminary planting area of autumn-winter rice in 2021 will reach 719.7 thousand hectares, a decrease of 4.3 thousand hectares compared to the autumn-winter crop of 2020 due to the conversion to fruit trees and the chain effect from the late summer-autumn crop seeding, some fields were not enough for the production time so temporarily let the land rest, opening filed to receive alluvium to prepare for the upcoming winter-spring crop. Yield is estimated at 56.1 quintals/ha, an increase of 0.5 quintals/ha; output is estimated at 4.04 million tons, up to 9.4 thousand tons compared to the autumn-winter crop last year. The area planted to rice for autumn-winter 2021 decreased in Vinh Long, Dong Thap, An Giang, Kien Giang, and Bac Lieu, but increased in localities such as Long An, Tien Giang, Ben Tre, and Tra Vinh because these localities could not be planted due to drought, salinity last year; due to late rain and low water in the upstream river so area outside dike was extended this year. The total area of the whole region decreased, but the preliminary yield of the provinces increased, most of the sowing area is located in the safe dike, so farmers are always proactive in the amount of water needed for each stage of rice plant growth and the loss rate is low at the time of harvest and the rice varieties are converted to high yielding varieties.
This year’s winter crop, the whole country cultivated 1,559.7 thousand hectares, down by 26.1 thousand hectares compared to the previous year. With favorable weather conditions, fast and uniform tillering, and timely prevention of pests and diseases, this year’s yield increased compared to last year, estimated at 51.7 quintals/ha, an increase of 0.6 quintals/ha. Due to a decrease in the cultivated area, the total output of the whole crop was estimated at 8.07 million tons, down by 36.2 thousand tons compared to the previous year’s winter crop. In the northern provinces, the yield is estimated at 52.7 quintals/ha, an increase of 0.6 quintals/ha compared to the previous year’s winter crop; output reached 5.49 million tons, up to 19.2 thousand tons. In the southern provinces, the yield is estimated at 49.9 quintals/ha, an increase of 0.6 quintals/ha; output reached 2.58 million tons, down by 55.4 thousand tons.
Rice production meets domestic consumption demand, ensures food security, serves processing and export. This result was due to favorable weather conditions for plants to grow and develop and the conversion of land use purposes, crops, season’s structure.
In recent years, the process of changing crop structure has taken place strongly and widely in all regions, the new planting area of many perennial crops has increased. As a result, in 2021, the area for products and the output of some types of trees increase. The total area of perennial trees in 2021 was estimated at 3,688.6 thousand hectares, rising by 2% compared to last year, of which industrial plants reached 2,209.9 thousand hectares, increasing by 1.1%; fruit trees reached 1,173.4 thousand hectares, rising by 3.4 %; oil-bearing fruit trees reached 189.1 thousand hectares, growing by 3.2%; spices and medicinal plants reached 55 thousand hectares, up to 3.8%.
The group of fruit trees has increased planting area, mainly focusing on tropical and subtropical fruits such as durian, pineapple, guava, jackfruit, pomelo, mango,… because these are agricultural products. has a stable consumer market. Areas with some major fruit trees in 2021 are as follows: mango reached 114.2 thousand hectares, an increase of 2.3 thousand hectares; pomelo 108.3 thousand ha, an increase of 2.9 thousand ha; oranges 93.8 thousand ha, down 4.6 thousand ha; banana 155.3 thousand ha, an increase of 2.5 thousand ha; longan 82.5 thousand ha, equivalent to the same period; litchi 54.8 thousand ha, an increase of 0.4 thousand ha; jackfruit 72.2 thousand hectares, an increase of 12.5 thousand hectares; guava 23.1 thousand hectares, an increase of 1.7 thousand hectares; durian 84.8 thousand ha, an increase of 13.4 thousand ha.
The group of industrial crops with an increase in planting area in 2021 were cashew, coffee and rubber. Specifically, the cashew area reached 314.6 thousand hectares, an increase of 12.2 thousand hectares, corresponding to an increase of 4.0%; coffee reached 705.0 thousand hectares, an increase of 9.4 thousand hectares, corresponding to an increase of 1.4%; rubber area reached 938.8 thousand ha, an increase of 6.4 thousand ha, corresponding to an increase of 0.7%. The area of these trees increased mainly due to being newly planted on forestry land and due to the conversion from the area intercropped in the previously inefficient perennial orchards.
Mango output is estimated at 938.2 thousand tons, up 43.4 thousand tons compared to 2020; pineapple reached 737.3 thousand tons, up 25.3 thousand tons; longan reached 602.8 thousand tons, up 34.6 thousand tons; lychee reached 386.6 thousand tons, up 71.2 thousand tons; pomelo reached 1,006.9 thousand tons, up 74.9 thousand tons; oranges reached 1,545.9 thousand tons, up 385.1 thousand tons; durian reached 693.8 thousand tons, up 105.8 thousand tons.
The estimated cashew output reached 383.3 thousand tons, an increase of 34.8 thousand tons; rubber output was estimated at 1,260,1 thousand tons, up 34.0 thousand tons; coffee output was estimated at 1,816.0 thousand tons, increasing by 52.5 thousand tons; coconut production is estimated at 1,787.3 thousand tons, an increase of 66.6 thousand tons; pepper output is estimated at 280.3 thousand tons, up 10.1 thousand tons; output of tea buds is estimated at 1,087.2 thousand tons, up 22.2 thousand tons. The production of perennial crops increased mainly because the weather this year was more stable than the same period last year, and the area of trees at harvest time also increased.
Looking back a year, despite being affected by the epidemic, the farming industry has promoted its advantages, the output of crops is quite good, with high productivity, providing demand for domestic consumption and for export. Export of agro-forestry products in 2021 will reach 23.8 billion USD, up 15% compared to 2020, of which vegetable and fruit exports will reach 3.5 billion USD, up 7.8%.