INTERNATIONAL AND GLOBAL ECONOMIC CONTEXT
The socio-economic situation of our country in 2021 took place in the context that the world economy tends to recover when the countries promote vaccination programs against Covid-19, but the emergence of new strains made the economic recovery slows down. The International Monetary Fund forecasted that the global economy would grow by 5.9% in 2021. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the European Union, and Fitch Ratings predicted global economic growth in 2021 reached 5.6%, 5.8%, and 5.7%, respectively. The price of many commodities increased sharply compared to 2020. The inflation was upward but overall, still controlled around the world. In addition, the pandemic has caused bottlenecks in the global value chain, causing the increase of raw materials price is a challenge for the production and business activities of countries.
Domestically, the wave of Covid-19 outbroke from the end of April with a new strain spreading rapidly and dangerously has complicated developments in many localities, especially in focus economic localities such as Hanoi, Bac Ninh, Bac Giang, Da Nang, Ho Chi Minh City, Binh Duong, Dong Nai, Long An, Can Tho, etc. It has seriously affected people’s lives, safety, and socio-economic development.
In the face of that situation, under the unified leadership of both the political system and the direction and drastic management of the Government, the Prime Minister has issued timely decisions to prevent, combat epidemics, and develop the socio-economic situation. In particular, Resolution No. 128/NQ-CP dated October 11, 2021, promulgated temporary regulations “safe, flexible and effective control of Covid-19 epidemic”, along with policies to ensure social security, the consensus, support, sharing, and active participation of the people, the business community, socio-economic activity in the fourth quarter and 2021 of our country have achieved many encouraging results. Specifically as follows:
I. ECONOMIC GROWTH
1. Gross domestic product (GDP) in 2021 is estimated to increase by 2.58% over the same period last year due to the Covid-19 pandemic seriously affecting all sectors of the economy, especially in the third quarter of 2021, key economic localities have to implement prolonged social distancing to prevent the pandemic, this is a great success of our country in disease prevention and maintenance of production and business.
Gross domestic product (GDP) in the fourth quarter of 2021 was estimated to increase by 5.22% over the same period last year, although higher than the growth rate of 4.61% in 2020 but lower than the growth rate of the fourth quarter over the same previous of years in 2011-2019. Of which: the agriculture, forestry, and fishery sector increased by 3.16%; the industry and construction sector by 5.61%; the service sector by 5.42%. Regarding the GDP in use method in the fourth quarter of 2021, final consumption increased by 3.86% over the same period last year; accumulated assets increased by 3.37%; exports of goods and services increased by 14.28%; imports of goods and services increased by 11.36%.
GDP in 2021 was estimated to increase by 2.58% (the first quarter increased by 4.72%; the second quarter by 6.73%; the third quarter by 6.02%; the fourth quarter by 5.22%) over the previous year due to the Covid-19 seriously affected all areas of the economy, especially in the third quarter of 2021, many focused economic localities had to implement prolonged social distancing to prevent the Covid-19 epidemic. In the general growth rate of the whole economy, the agriculture, forestry, and fishery sector increased by 2.9%, contributing 13.97% to the growth rate of total value added of the economy; the industry and construction sector increased by 4.05%, contributing 63.80%; the service sector up 1.22%, contributing 22.23%.
In the field of Agriculture, forestry, and fishery, the productivity of most crops was quite good compared to the previous year, livestock has grown steadily, and the export turnover of some agricultural products increased in 2021, contributing to maintaining the growth rate of the field. The Agricultural sector increased by 3.18%, contributing 0.29 percentage points to the growth rate of the total added value of the economy; the forestry sector up 3.88%, contributing 0.02 percentage points; the fisheries sector increased by 1.73%, contributing 0.05 percentage points.
In the industry and construction field, the processing and manufacturing sectors continued to be the economic engine with a growth rate of 6.37%, contributing 1.61 percentage points to the growth rate of total value added of the economy. The electricity production and distribution industry increased by 5.24%, contributing 0.19 percentage points. The mining industry decreased by 6.21%, down 0.23 percentage points due to the 5.7% decrease in crude oil production and 19.4% decrease in gaseous natural gas. The construction industry increased by 0.63%, contributing 0.05 percentage points.
The complicated development of the Covid-19 epidemic since the end of April has seriously affected commercial and service activities. The negative growth of some service industries accounted for a large proportion, reducing the overall growth rate of the service sector and the whole economy. The wholesale and retail industry decreased by 0.21% over the previous year, reducing 0.02 percentage points in the growth rate of the total added value of the whole economy; the transportation and warehousing industry decreased by 5.02%, decreasing by 0.3 percentage points; the accommodation and food service industry dropped sharply by 20.81%, down 0.51 percentage points. The health sector and social assistance activities achieved the highest growth rate in the service sector with an increase of 42.75%, contributing 0.55 percentage points; financial, banking, and insurance activities increased by 9.42%, contributing 0.52 percentage points; information and communication industry increased by 5.97%, contributing 0.36 percentage points.
Regarding the economic structure in 2021, the agriculture, forestry, and fishery sector account for 12.36%; industry and construction accounted for 37.86%; service sector accounted for 40.95%; product tax minus product subsidies accounted for 8.83%.
Regarding GDP use in 2021, final consumption increased by 2.09% compared to 2020; accumulated assets increased by 3.96%; exports of goods and services increased by 14.01%; imports of goods and services increased by 16.16%.
Labor productivity of the whole economy at current prices in 2021 is estimated at 171.3 million VND/employee (equivalent to 7,398 USD/employee, an increase of 538 USD compared to 2020). At constant prices, labor productivity in 2021 increased by 4.71% due to improved qualifications of workers (the proportion of trained workers with degrees and certificates in 2021 reached 26.1%, higher than the 25.3% of 2020).
2. The agriculture, forestry, and fishery sector in 2020 took place in relatively favorable weather conditions for crops and livestock to grow and develop. However, due to the complicated development of the Covid-19 pandemic, especially in the third quarter, many localities have implemented social distancing, affecting the supply chain of production – processing – consumption of agricultural, forestry, and fishery products. In a situation where both advantages and disadvantages were intertwined, the Agriculture sector has had many timely response solutions, together with the effective implementation of the Government’s Resolution No.128/NQ-CP to stabilize and develop production, reaching a high growth rate. The performance results of the agricultural sector in 2021 have demonstrated the role of the pedestal of the economy, ensuring the supply of food and essential goods, to be the important base to implement welfare and security during the pandemic.
Rice area in 2021 estimated at 7.24 million hectares, a decrease of 38.3 thousand hectares over the previous year due to the conversion of production structure and land use purposes; rice yield was 60.6 quintal/ha, rose by 1.8 quintals/ha; rice production was estimated at 43.88 million tons, increasing by 1.1 mill. tons.
The production result of the country’s spring crop this year was quite good, although the cultivated area reached 3,006.8 thousand hectares, a decrease of 17.2 thousand hectares compared to the spring crop in 2020, the yield was high with 68.6 quintals/ha, an increase of 2.9 quintals/ha; spring rice production reached 20.63 million tons, an increase of 755.1 thousand tons compared to the previous year’s spring crop.
The planted area of autumn paddy nationwide this year reached 1,954.2 thousand hectares, an increase of 9.1 thousand hectares compared to the autumn crop in 2020; yield reached 57 quintals/ha, an increase of 1.7 quintals/ha; production reached 11.14 million tons, rose 389.1 thousand tons.
The planted area of autumn-winter paddy in 2021 was estimated at 719.7 thousand hectares, a decrease of 4.3 thousand hectares compared to the previous year’s autumn-winter crop; the yield of the whole crop was estimated at 56.1 quintals/ha, an increase of 0.5 quintals/ha compared to the autumn-winter crop in 2020; production of 4.04 million tons, up to 9.4 thousand tons.
This year’s winter paddy crop, the whole country cultivated 1,559.7 thousand hectares, a decrease of 26.1 thousand hectares compared to the previous year; this year’s winter paddy yield estimated at 51.7 quintals/ha, an increase of 0.6 quintals/ha; the total production of the whole crop was estimated at 8.07 million tons, down by 36.2 thousand tons compared to the previous year’s crop.
Maize output reached 4.43 million tons, a decrease of 2.9% compared to 2020; sweet potato reached 1.22 million tons, down 11.2%; peanut reached 426.9 thousand tons, rising by 0.3%; soybean reached 59.2 thousand tons, down 9.5 thousand tons; the output of vegetables of all kinds reached 18.4 million tons, an increase of 1.7%.
Industrial plants reached 2,209.9 thousand hectares, increasing by 1.1% compared to last year, of which: rubber area reached 938.8 thousand hectares, rose 0.7% over the previous year, production reached 1,260.1 thousand tons, up 2.8%; coffee area reached 705 thousand hectares, rising by 1.4%, production reached 1.816 thousand tons, up to 3%; cashew area reached 314.6 thousand hectares, up to 4%, production reached 383.3 thousand tons, up to 10%; pepper area reached 128.2 thousand hectares, down by 2.7%, output reached 280.3 thousand tons, up to 3.7%; tea area reached 123.4 thousand hectares, down 0.2%, tea output reached 1,087.2 thousand tons, up to 2.1.
Fruit trees achieved good production in most types of trees. Oranges production reached 1,545.9 thousand tons, rising by 33.2% comparison over last year; pomelos reached 1,006.9 thousand tons, up 8%; mango reached 938.2 thousand tons, rising by 4.9%; durian reached 693.8 thousand tons, increasing by 18%; litchi reached 386.6 thousand tons, rose 22.6%; longan reached 602.8 thousand tons, rising by 6.1%; pineapple 737.3 thousand tons, up 3.6%.
Cattle and buffalo husbandry was generally stable. The Lumpy Skin Disease has gradually been controlled because local authorities and specialized agencies had drastically and synchronously implemented solutions to prevent disease such as well-organized vaccinations; detect and promptly handling new outbreaks; strictly handling cases of illegal transportation, trading of buffaloes and cows of unknown origin.
As of December 22, 2021, the whole country has no longer blue-ear disease and foot-and-mouth disease; avian flu was still in Quang Ninh, Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, Quang Tri, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, and Binh Phuoc; African swine fever was reported in 41 localities and LSD was still in 7 localities for less than 21 days.
In general, in 2021, the newly concentrated planted forest area nationwide was estimated at 277.8 thousand hectares, up 2.8% over the previous year (In the fourth quarter of 2021, the newly concentrated planted forest area nationwide was estimated at 101.9 thousand hectares, up 3% over the same period last year); the number of scattered planted trees reached 99 million trees, increasing by 3% ( In the fourth quarter of 2021 reached 5,245.2 thousand m3, up 8.1%); timber production reached 18.1 million m3, up 5.4% (In the fourth quarter of 2021 reached 5,245.2 thousand m3, up 8.1%); firewood production was 18.8 million steres, down 1.6% (In the fourth quarter of 2021 was 4.5 million steres, down 3.8%).
Damaged forest area  in 2021 was 2,081 hectares, up 29,3% over the previous year, of which: burned forest area was 1,229 hectares, 1.7 times higher; the deforested forest area was 852 ha, down 6.2%.
The fishery production in 2021 was estimated at 8,726.6 thousand tons, up 1% compared to 2020 (In the fourth quarter of 2021 was thousand tons, up 2.8% over the same period last year), including Fish reached 6,295.2 thousand tons, up 0.1%; shrimp was 1,136.4 thousand tons, up 4.3%; other aquatic products reached 1,295 thousand tons, up 2.6%.
Aquaculture production this year was estimated at 4,805.8 thousand tons, up 1.0% over the previous year (In the fourth quarter of 2021 was 1,452.7 thousand tons, up 3.5% over the same period last year), including Fish reaching 3,259.1 thousand tons, down 0.8%; shrimp reached 987.5 thousand tons, up 4.7%; other aquatic products reached 559.2 thousand tons, up 5.4%.
Catch Fishery output in 2021 was estimated at 3,920.8 thousand tons, up 0.9% over the previous year (In the fourth quarter of 2021 was estimated at 863.6 thousand tons, up 1.7% over the same period last year), including fish reaching 3,036.1 thousand tons, up 1%; shrimp 148.9 thousand tons, up 1.2%; other aquatic products 735.8 thousand tons, up 0.6%. The output of marine fishing in 2021 was estimated at 3,726 thousand tons, up 0.9%, of which: fish 2,903.5 thousand tons, up 1%; shrimp 138.7 thousand tons, up 1.2%.
3. Industrial production in the fourth quarter of 2021 prospered right after localities across the country implemented the Government’s Resolution No. 128/NQ-CP dated October 11, 2021, on safe adaptation, flexibility, effectively controlling the Covid-19 pandemic with the value-added growth rate of 6.52% over the same period last year. The value-added of the industry in 2021 increased by 4.82% compared to 2020, of which the manufacturing increased by 6.37%.
The value-added of the whole industry in 2021 was estimated to increase by 4.82% over the previous year (the first quarter increased by 6.44%; the second quarter by 11.18%; the third quarter by 4.4%; the fourth quarter by 6.52%). Of which, the manufacturing increased by 6.37%; Electricity, gas, steam, and air conditioning supply increased by 5.24%; Water supply; sewerage, waste management, and remediation activities increased by 4%; Mining and quarrying sector decreased by 6.21% due to a decrease in crude oil production by 5.7% and a decrease of 19.4% in natural gas.
Generally, in 2021, the consumption index of the whole manufacturing industry increased by 4.5% over the last year. The inventory index of the manufacturing industry was estimated as of 31/12/2021 increased by 0.1% over the period month and increased by 21.9 over the same period last year (in the same period of 2020 increased by 25.3%). The average inventory rate of the whole processing and manufacturing industry in 2021 was 79.1% (the last year was 71.9%).
4. In 2021, the strong outbreak of the fourth Covid-19 wave along with strict blockades and prolonged distancing (especially in the third quarter of 2021) had a negative impact on the increase in the number of businesses. The total number of enterprises entering and re-entering the market in 2021 reached nearly 160,000 enterprises, down 10.7% compared to 2020; 119.8 thousand enterprises withdrew from the market, an increase of 17.8%, of which the majority were enterprises established under 5 years, with small capital scale.
The timely promulgation and implementation of Resolution No. 128/NQ-CP dated October 11, 2021, nationwide have made an important contribution to restoring production and promoting the market, gradually creating confidence for enterprises. The results of the survey on business trends of enterprises in the processing and manufacturing industry showed that enterprises were optimistic about their production and business situation in the first quarter of 2022 with 81.7% of enterprises assessing it will be stable and better than the fourth quarter of 2021.
a) Enterprise registration status 
In the fourth quarter of 2021, the newly established enterprises had 31.4 thousand enterprises with a total registered capital of 415.3 trillion VND and a total number of registered employees of 205.1 thousand employees, up 70.4% in the number of enterprises, an increase of 64.1% in number the registered capital, and an increase of 24.7% in the number of employees compared to the third quarter in 2021. After more than two months of Resolution 128/NQ-CP in practice, the business registration situation of enterprises in the last months of 2021 has improved clearly.
Generally, in 2021, the whole country had 116.8 thousand newly registered enterprises with a total registered capital of 1,611.1 trillion VND and a total number of registered employees nearly 854 thousand employees, down 13.4% in the number of enterprises, a decrease of 27.9% in number the registered capital, and a decrease of 18.1% in the number of employees compared last year. The average registered capital of a newly established enterprise in 2021 achieved 13.8 billion VND, down 16.8% compared to the previous year. If including 2,524.9 trillion VND of the additionally registered capital of 43.5 thousand enterprises that recorded an upward of capital adjustment, the total additional registered capital in the economy this year was 4,136 trillion VND, down 25.8% compared to 2020. Besides, there were 43.1 thousand re-operated enterprises (a decrease of 2.2% over the same period last year), bringing the total number of newly registered enterprises and re-operated enterprises in 2021 to nearly 160 thousand enterprises, a decrease of 10.7%. The average every month had 13.3 thousand newly established and re-operated enterprises.
This year, there were 55 thousand enterprises temporarily ceased for a certain time, an increase of 18% compared to last year; 48.1 thousand enterprises temporarily ceased and awaited dissolution procedures, a climb up 27.8%; 16.7 thousand enterprises completed dissolution procedures, a decrease of 4.1%, of which 14.8 thousand enterprises with the capital size of less than 10 billion VND, down 4%; 211 enterprises with the capital size over 100 billion VND, a decrease of 20.7%. On average, nearly 10 thousand enterprises withdraw from the market each month.
b) Business trends of the enterprises
Results of the business tendency survey of manufacturing enterprises in the fourth quarter of 2021 showed that: 44% of enterprises assessed that the business production situation was better than the third quarter of 2021; 31.1% of enterprises said that the business production situation was stable and 24.9% of enterprises faced difficulties. For the expected outcome of the first quarter of 2022, 45.6% of enterprises presented that the tendency would get better than the fourth quarter of 2021; 18.3% of enterprises predicted that it would be more difficult and 36.1% of enterprises said that business production situation would be stable.
5. Implementing Resolution No. 128/NQ-CP dated October 11, 2021, of the Government, domestic transport activities have been restored. Passenger and freight transport in the fourth quarter of 2021 both increased compared to the third quarter of 2021, total retail sales of consumer goods and services increased by 28.1%; passengers carried increased by 48.4%, passengers traffic increased by 51.3% and freight carried increased by 31.8 %, freight traffic increased by 28.4%; international visitors increased by 62.7%
Total retail sales of consumer goods and services in December 2021 was estimated at 458.5 trillion VND, up 4.6% over the previous month and 1.1% over the same period last year. In the fourth quarter of 2021, the total retail sales of consumer goods and services were estimated at 1,312.6 trillion VND, up 28.1% over the previous quarter and down 2.8% over the same period last year. In 2021, the total retail sales of consumer goods and services were estimated at 4,789.5 trillion VND, down 3.8% compared to the previous year. If excluding the price factor, the decrease would be 6.2% (in 2020, decreased by 3%).
Generally, for the whole year 2021, passenger carried reached 2,387.3 million passengers, a decrease of 33% over the same period last year (in 2020 down 29.6%), the passenger traffic gained 94.7 billion passengers-km, went down 42% (in 2020 decreased by 34.1 %). Freight carried reached 1,620.5 million tons, down 8.7% against the last year (in 2020 decreased by 5.2%), freight traffic gained 333.4 billion tons-km, down 1.8% (the same period of 2020 decreased by 6.7%).
Telecommunications revenue was estimated to reach 314.8 trillion VND, decreased by 0.1% compared to last year (if excluding the price factor, the increase was 0.3%). The total number of telephone subscribers by the end of December 2021 was estimated at 130.3 million subscribers, an increase of 2.7% compared to the same period last year, of which mobile phone subscribers reached 127.2 million subscribers, rising by 2.8%; The number of fixed broadband internet subscribers recorded 19.3 million subscribers, up 15.6%
International visitors to Viet Nam was estimated at 157.3 thousand arrivals, down 95.9% compared to last year, of which: Visitors coming by airway gained 111.1 thousand persons, accounting for 70.6% of the number of international visitors to Viet Nam, dropped by 96.4%; by roadway achieved 45.6 thousand arrivals, accounted for 29% and went down by 92.5%; by seaway achieved 614 arrivals, accounted for 0.4% and decreased nearly by 99.6%. Visitors from Asia reached 132.8 thousand arrivals, accounting for 84.5% of the total number of international visitors to our country, down 95.3% over the previous year; visitors from Europe reached 16.0 thousand arrivals, down 97.6%; visitors from the Americas reached 5.8 thousand arrivals, down 97.6%; visitors from Oceania reached 1.3 thousand arrivals, down 98.8%; visitors from Africa reached 1.4 thousand arrivals, down 88.6%.
6. In 2021, in the context of the economy facing many difficulties due to the impact of the Covid-19 epidemic, the State Bank of Vietnam adjusted interest rates appropriately, creating conditions for credit institutions to continue reducing lending interest rates, supporting the recovery of the economy. Stable insurance business; The stock market developed fast with a stock market capitalization in 2021 increased by 45.5% compared to the end of last year.
As of December 24, 2021, the total liquidity increased by 8.93% compared to the end of 2020; capital mobilization from credit institutions increased by 8.44%; credit growth of the economy reached 12.97%.
the premium revenue of the entire insurance market increased by 15.6% compared to the previous year, of which the premium revenue from life insurance increased by 21.7%; the non-life insurance increased by 1.7%. (In the fourth quarter of 2021 was estimated to increase by 14.8% over the same period last year, of which premium revenue from life insurance was up 20.9%, the non-life insurance down 2.6%).
The stock market developed strongly despite the complicated ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. In 2021, Vietnam’s stock market recorded many new records: VNIndex reached 1,500 points; The wave of investor entry increased sharply (by the end of November 2021, the number of investor accounts reached 4.08 million accounts, an increase of 47.3% compared to the end of 2020). As of 27/12/2021, the VNIndex reached 1,488.88 points, up 34.9% compared to the end of 2020; market capitalization reached 7,702 trillion VND, rose by 45.5%; The average transaction value from the beginning of the year to now (s of December 27, 2021) reached 26,526 billion VND/session, peak up by 257.5% compared to the previous year’s average. On the bond market, there were 430 listed bond codes, with a value of 1,511 trillion VND, up 8.9% compared to the end of 2020. The average trading value from the beginning of the year to 27/12/2021 reached 11,421 billion VND/session, up 9.9% compared to the average in 2020. On the derivatives market, the average trading volume of futures contracts on the VN30 index reached 189,923 contracts/session, up 21% over the previous year.
7. The investment at current prices in 2021 increased by 3.2% over the previous year. Although this is the lowest increase in many years, it is a positive result in the complex context of the Covid-19 epidemic in the country and the world. Foreign direct investment (FDI) attraction recovered, newly registered and additionally registered capital increased again, showing that foreign investors believe in Vietnam’s investment environment.
Generally, in 2021, the investment at current prices estimated at 2,891.9 trillion VND, increasing by 3.2% over the last year, of which: the investment capital of the State sector reached 713.6 trillion VND, representing 24.7% of the total capital and decreasing by 2.9% compared to the same period last year; the non-State sector gained 1,720.2 trillion VND, accounting for 59.5% and rising by 7.2%; the foreign direct investment recorded 458.1 trillion VND, accounting for 15.8% and decreasing by 1.1%.
The registered capital of foreign investment in Vietnam from the beginning of the year to 20/12/2021, including newly registered capital, adjust registered capital, and the total value of capital contribution and share purchases of foreign investors reached 31.15 billion USD, increased by 9.2% compared to the year 2020. In the Capital contribution and share purchases of foreign investors including 1,535 turns of capital contribution, share purchase, causing the increase of charter capital of the enterprise with the value of contributed capital of 5.03 billion USD, and 2,262 turns of foreign investors repurchased domestic shares without increasing the charter capital with a value of 1.86 billion USD.
Vietnam’s investment abroad in 2021, there were 61 projects newly granted investment certificates with a total investment capital of 409.1 million USD, increasing by 28.6% over the same period of last year; 22 turns of projects adjusted capital with decreased capital of 776 million USD.
8. Production and business activities continued to recover, contributing to the estimated State budget revenue in 2021 to reach 1,523.4 trillion VND and exceed the annual plan. State budget expenditures focused on giving priority to the prevention and control of the Covid-19 epidemic, overcoming natural disasters, ensuring national defense and security, and supporting people facing difficulties due to the impact of the pandemic.
Total state budget revenue in 2021 was estimated to reach 1,523.4 trillion VND, equaling 113.4 % of the annual estimate (increasing by 180.1 trillion VND), of which: Domestic revenue equaled 110.4% of the yearly estimate (an increase of nearly 118 trillion VND); revenue from crude oil was 197.4% (up 22.6 trillion VND); balanced income from import and export activities equaled 122.1% (increasing by 39.5 trillion VND).
Total state budget expenditure in 2021 was estimated at 1,839.2 trillion VND, equaling 109% of the annual estimate, of which recurrent expenditure was 102.3%; development investment expenditure equaled 106.4 %; interest payment was 96.2%.
9. In December 2021, the import and export of goods continued to be the bright spot of the economy with the total import and export turnover estimated at 66.5 billion USD, up 6.4% compared to previous months and up 19.7% over the same period last year. Generally, in 2021, the total import and export turnover of goods reach 668.5 billion USD, up 22.6% over last year, of which exports increased by 19%; imports increased by 26.5%.
a) Export and import of goods 
Export turnover in December 2021 was estimated at 34.5 billion USD, increased by 8.3% over the previous month. In the fourth quarter of 2021, export turnover was estimated at 95.6 billion USD, up 19.4% over the same period last year and 16.4% compared to the third quarter of 2021 (up 19.5% compared to the same period last year. II/2021 and increased by 21.9% compared to the first quarter of 2021. Generally, in 2021, the export turnover was estimated at 336.25 billion USD, rose by 19% over 2020, of which, the domestic economic sector was 88.71 billion USD, up 13.4%, accounting for 26.4% of total export turnover; the FDI sector (including crude oil) attained 247.54 billion USD, increased by 21.1%, sharing 73.6%. In 2021, there were 35 products with an export turnover of over 1 billion USD, contributing 93.8% to the total export turnover (8 products with export turnover of over 10 billion USD, accounting for 69.7%).
Import turnover in December 2021 was estimated at 32 billion USD, increased by 4.5% over the previous month. In the fourth quarter of 2021, import turnover was estimated at 89.07 billion USD, grew by 16% over the same period in 2020, and rose by 6.2% compared to the third quarter of 2021 (increased by 6.5% compared to the second quarter of 2021 and increased by 17.6% compared to the first quarter of 2021). Generally, in 2021, the import turnover was estimated at 332.25 billion USD, increasing by 26.5% over 2020. Of which the domestic economic sector reached 114.07 billion USD, went up by 21.8%; the FDI sector gained 218.18 billion USD, edged up by 29.1%. In 2021, there were 47 imported products with a turnover of over 1 billion USD, accounting for 94.1% of total import turnover.
b) Export and import of services
In 2021, export turnover of services was estimated at 3.67 billion USD, went down 51.7% over 2020, of which travel service gained 149 million USD (accounting for 4.1% of the total turnover), decreased by 95.4%; transportation service reached 446 million USD (accounting for 12.1%), decreased by 61.4%. Import turnover of service in this year estimated at 19.41 billion USD, edged up by 8.5% over last year, of which transport services gained 9.99 billion USD (accounting for 51.5% of total turnover), increased by 34.2%; travel services reached 3.63 billion USD (sharing 18.7%), declined by 21.3%. The trade deficit of services in 2021 was 15.73 billion USD (in which the cost of transportation and insurance from the import of goods was 8.24 billion USD).
10. Petrol and gas prices in the month decreased according to world fuel prices; the Covid-19 epidemic has complicated developments throughout the country; tuition fees for the first semester of the academic year 2021-2022 continue to be exempted and reduced in some localities, which were the main reasons for the consumer price index (CPI) in December 2021 decreased by 0.18% compared to the previous month and increased by 1.81% compared to December 2020. On average, in 2021, CPI increased by 1.84% over the previous year, the lowest increase since 2016. Core inflation in 12 months increased by 0.81%. Producer price index, input producer price index used for production, the merchandise export and import price indexes of goods in 2021 increased compared to the previous year. Merchandise term of trade in 2021 decreased by 2.49% compared to 2020, reflecting the unfavorable export price of goods compared to the importing goods price from abroad to Vietnam.
a) Consumer price index
The consumer price index (CPI) in December 2021 decreased by 0.18% compared to the previous month, of which: 4 groups of goods and services had a decrease in the price index and 7 groups with an increase in the price index, of which Transport group had the largest decrease with 1.71%; Garments, hats, and shoes had the highest increase with 0.22%. In the fourth quarter of 2021, CPI decreased by 0.38% compared to the previous quarter and increased by 1.89% over the same period in 2020. The average CPI in 2021 increased by 1.84% compared to the average in 2020, the lowest average increase since 2016. Average core inflation in 2021 increased by 0.81% compared to the average in 2020.
b) Gold price index and US dollar
The domestic gold price fluctuated opposite to world gold prices. On average, the world gold price as of December 25th, 2021 decreased by 1.8% compared to November 2021 due to the increase of the dollar and US bond yields in line with the expectation that US interest rates will increase next year. Domestically, the gold price index in December 2021 increased by 0.25% compared to the previous month; an increase of 1% compared to December 2020, and an average increase of 8.67% in 2021 compared to the previous year.
The US dollar in world markets rose amid high US inflation, as investors moved away from riskier currencies after central banks made decisions on raising interest rates as well as concerns about the possibility of the spread of the Omicron mutation. Domestically, due to the increased demand for foreign currency by import enterprises making the US dollar price index in December 2021 increased by 0.84% compared to the previous month; decreased by 0.58% compared to December 2020 and on average in 2021 decreased by 0.97% compared to the previous year.
c) Producer price index, price index of materials, fuels used for production
Producer price index (PPI) for agricultural, forestry, and fishery products in the fourth quarter of 2021 increased by 0.78% compared to the previous quarter and by 0.07% over the same period last year; PPI for industrial products in the fourth quarter of 2021 increased by 0.71% compared to the previous quarter and by 4.33%; PPI for services in the fourth quarter of 2021 increased by 0.54% compared to the previous quarter and by 1.24%. In general, in 2021, the PPI of agricultural, forestry and fishery products increased by 2.12% compared to 2020; PPI for industrial products increased by 2.91%; PPI for services increased by 0.95%.
The price index of materials, fuels used for production in the fourth quarter of 2021 increased by 1.18% compared to the previous quarter and 6.43% over the same period last year. In general, in 2021, the price index of materials, fuels used for production increased by 5.51% over the previous year, of which: The price index of materials, fuels used for agriculture, forestry, and fishing increased by 7.22%; used for manufacturing increased by 5.42%; used for construction increased by 6.4%.
d) Merchandise import and export price index
The merchandise export price index in the fourth quarter of 2021 increased by 1.62% compared to the previous quarter and by 5.13% over the same period last year; the Merchandise import price index in the fourth quarter of 2021 increased by 3.83% compared to the previous quarter and by 9.96% over the same period last year; Merchandise term of trade decreased by 2.13% compared to the previous quarter and by 4.39% over the same period last year. In general, in 2021, the merchandise export price index increased by 2.86% over the previous year; the merchandise import price index increased by 5.49%; the commodity trade rate decreased by 2.49%.
II. SOME SOCIAL ISSUES
1. The average population of Vietnam in 2021 was 98.51 million people. The quality of the population has improved, fertility has decreased, and replacement fertility has been maintained since 2005. Besides, the mortality rate has remained at a low level, the average life expectancy has been increased. The labor and employment situation in the fourth quarter of 2021 improved compared to the previous quarter, but due to the impact of the Covid-19 epidemic, the unemployment rate and the underemployment rate in general in 2021 were higher than the previous year while the number of people with employment jobs, wages of salaried employees were lower than the previous year.
The average population of the whole country in 2021 was estimated at 98.51 million people, an increase of 922.7 thousand people, equivalent to an increase of 0.95% compared to 2020, of which: The urban population was 36.57 million people, accounting for 37.1%; rural population 61.94 million people, accounting for 62.9%; men 49.1 million people, accounting for 49.8%; women 49.41 million people, accounting for 50.2%. The sex ratio of the population in 2021 was 99.4 males/100 females.
According to the results of quickly synthesizing reports of provinces and centrally-run cities, as of December 15, 2021, the whole country had about 2.2 million people returned to their localities due to the impact of the fourth Covid-19 pandemic. Among the total number of migrants, the female was 839.5 thousand people, accounting for 37.5% of the total; people aged 15 and over were nearly 1.6 million people, accounting for 70.9%. The number of people returning from Hanoi to other provinces and cities was 447.1 thousand people; from Ho Chi Minh City was 524 thousand people; from the Southern provinces was 594 thousand people and from other provinces and cities was 676 thousand people.
The labor force aged 15 and over was 50.5 million people, down 0.8% compared to the previous year; the labor force in working age was 44.6 million people, down 1.5%; Employed laborers aged 15 and over were 49 million people.
The unemployment rate of working age in 2021 was estimated at 3.22%, of which the unemployment rate in urban areas was 4.42%; the rural area was 2.48%.
The underemployment rate of laborers of working age in 2021 was 3.1%, of which the underemployment rate in urban areas was 3.33%; the underemployment rate in rural areas was 2.96%.
2. This year, the complicated and prolonged development of the Covid-19 epidemic has significantly affected people’s lives. The Government and Prime Minister have directed ministries, branches, and localities to give priority to disease prevention and control with the main task of ensuring social security and people’s lives. Especially people in the localities implemented social distancing, ensuring that people have enough to eat and clothe.
According to preliminary results from the Population Living Standards Survey in 2021, the estimated average income per person per month in 2021 at current prices was about 4.2 million VND, down 73 thousand VND compared to 2020; multidimensional approach poverty rate was estimated at 4.4%, down 0.4 percentage points compared to 2020.
According to the Ministry of Labour – Invalids and Social Affairs, as of December 15, 2021, the total funding from the central budget has been supported according to Resolution No. 68/NQ-CP dated July 1st, 2021; Resolution No. 86/NQ-CP dated August 6th, 2021 of the Government and Resolution No. 126/NQ-CP dated October 8th, 2021; Decision No. 23/2021/QĐ-TTg dated 7/7/2021 of the Prime Minister was nearly 31.4 trillion VND for 28.8 million people and 337.9 thousand employers/household business. In addition, according to Resolution No. 116/NQ-CP dated September 24th, 2021 of the Government, 37.5 trillion VND was supported for nearly 22.3 million people and 363.6 thousand employers/household businesses. As of December 23th, 2021, nearly 149.1 thousand tons of rice was supported for 2.5 million households with nearly 9.9 million people suffering from hunger due to grain, disease, and natural disasters.
Periodic social security work and sustainable poverty reduction continue to be concerned, directed, and implemented even in disease conditions, localities have implemented many synchronous solutions, taking care of poor households. In 2021, the total value of money and gifts to support objects was 9.7 trillion VND, of which, support for people with meritorious services was 4.4 trillion VND, support for poor and near-poor households is 2.8 trillion VND; support for hunger relief for social protection beneficiaries and other beneficiaries was 2.5 billion VND. There were nearly 29.1 million social insurance cards/books and free medical examination and treatment cards distributed and donated to beneficiaries.
According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, by November 2021, the whole country has 5,392 communes meeting new rural standards (reaching 65.5%), it was estimated that by the end of December 2021, it reached 68% (up 5.6% compared to 2020).
3. Education and training were affected by the Covid-19 epidemic, but the Education sector promptly gave response plans; appropriate directions, and instructions to both ensure the safety of students and teachers and implement the school year plan.
The national high school graduation exam in 2021 has been successfully held, ensuring seriousness, safety, and compliance with exam regulations. The number of candidates taking part in the first exam was 981,773 candidates (in which the percentage of candidates coming to the exam was 96.13%); The number of candidates taking the second exam was 11,567 candidates (the percentage of candidates coming to the exam was 97.98%). More than 12,000 candidates were considered for graduation. The national high school graduation rate in 2021 reached 98.6%, an increase of 0.2% compared to the previous school year.
The Covid-19 epidemic has affected the enrollment and training of the whole vocational education system. In 2021, vocational training has recruited 1,896.8 thousand people, reached 80% of the year plan, of which: 482.4 thousand people are enrolled in college and intermediate education; elementary level and other vocational training programs enrolled 1,414.4 thousand people. The number of graduated students was 1,658.4 thousand people, reached 80% of the year plan, of which: 314.7 thousand people were enrolled at college and intermediate level; elementary level and other vocational training programs 1,343.7 thousand people.
4. The Covid-19 epidemic in the world continues to be complicated with the appearance of a new strain, Omicron. In Vietnam, the number of new cases has been increased in many localities; the number of critically ill patients and the number of deaths have not decreased.
As of 16: 00 on December 27th, 2021, In Viet Nam, there were 1,666,545 cases have been reported, of which 1,259,614 cases have been cured and 31,418 deaths. Bac Kan was the only province that has not had a secondary infection in the past 14 days. Vietnam’s vaccination against Covid-19 has been accelerated, as of December 27th, 2021: The total number of doses of Covid-19 vaccine that have been administered was 146,335,052 doses, of which the first time was 77,138,616 doses; the second time was 66,402,056 doses; the 3rd time was (additional injection, booster injection and the 3rd dose of Abdala vaccine) was 2,794,380 doses. Vaccine coverage has increased significantly from September to now. For the population aged 18 years and over, coverage of at least 1 dose of vaccine was 98.8% and coverage of 2 doses was 88.5%. For the population 12-17 years of age, coverage of at least 1 dose of vaccine was 81.0% and coverage of 2 doses was 43.5%.
Generally, in 2021, there were 69,354 cases of hemorrhagic fever (22 cases died); 38,413 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (11 cases died); 536 cases of virus encephalitis (14 cases died); cases of meningococcal disease (2 cases died) and 509 cases of scarlet fever suspected for measles, of which 77 were positive for measles.
The total number of people living with HIV nationwide as of December 18th, 2021 was 213.833 persons and the number of deaths by HIV/AIDS as of the above time-point was 110,990 persons.
Generally, in 2021, there were 58 cases of food poisoning with 1,557 persons poisoned (5 deaths).
5. The protection and promotion of cultural heritage values are concerned and implemented by localities. Library activities aim to apply information technology, especially digital technology, to improve operational capacity and form a modern library network, providing services to meet the requirement of users. High-performance sports achieved some outstanding results.
Mass physical training and sports activities continued to be promoted and improved in quality, many mass sports activities were organized such as “Olympic Running Day for the Health of the People in 2021”; guiding people to practice sports to improve health and prevent disease in the 2021-2025 period with the theme “The whole family practices now, defeating Covid”. Organized 07 sports competitions, national mass sports tournaments attracting 6,335 officials and athletes to attend, and 06 training courses on physical training and sports skills for 986 officials, instructors, junior sports collaborators.
Vietnam’s high-performance sports in 2021 focused on training and coaching high-achieving athletes to participate in regional, continental, and world sports tournaments such as Olympic, Paralympic Tokyo, SEA Games 31, ASEAN Para Games 11, and other international sports tournaments. In the country, 74 sports tournaments have been organized and 07 training courses for referees and sports coaches have been opened.
In 2021, the Vietnamese sports delegation reached 32 gold medals, 14 silver medals, and 15 bronze medals (including 02 gold medals, 07 silver medals, 07 bronze medals in world competitions; 02 gold medals, 01 silver medal, 02 bronze medals in tournaments in Asia; 28 gold medals, 06 silver medals, 06 bronze medals in open international tournaments).
6. The number of traffic accidents, deaths, and injuries due to traffic accidents decreased compared to the same period last year, because of the strict implementation of regulations on traffic safety and Covid-19 epidemic prevention and control for many consecutive months.
In 2021, there were 11,454 traffic accidents nationwide, including 7,370 traffic accidents of less serious or more and 4,084 traffic collisions, causing 5,739 deaths and 3,889 injuries, and 4,109 people were slightly injured. Compared to 2020, the number of traffic accidents decreased by 23.6% (the number of traffic accidents of less serious or more serious decreased by 14.5%; the number of traffic collisions decreased by 35.9%); the number of deaths decreased by 16.4%; the number of injured people decreased by 15% and the number of minor injuries decreased by 37.6%. On average, one day in 2021, nationwide, there were 31 traffic accidents, including 20 traffic accidents of less serious or more and 11 traffic collisions, causing 16 deaths and 11 injured and 11 people with minor injuries.
7. Natural disasters, environmental pollution, fires, and explosions significantly affect people’s lives in some localities.
In general, in 2021, natural disasters made 139 people dead and missing, 150 people injured; 393.9 thousand cattle and poultry died; 130.3 thousand hectares of rice and 78.5 thousand hectares of crops were damaged; 766 houses collapsed, swept away and 14.9 thousand houses were flooded and damaged; total value of property damage was estimated at 4,876.9 billion VND, down 87.5% compared to the previous year.
In general, this year, 15,690 cases of environmental violations were detected, of which 14,042 cases were handled with a total fine of 240.7 billion VND; there were 2,230 fires and explosions in the whole country, killing 97 people and injuring 145 others, with an estimated damage of 379.4 billion VND./.
GENERAL STATISTICS OFFICE
 OECD’s Preliminary report on the economic outlook in December 2021; Report on the European Economic Forecast in November 2021 by the European Union; Report on the Global Economic Outlook in December 2021 of the Fitch Ratings.
 According to the Report of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development received on December 25, 2021.
 Source: National Enterprise Registration Information System, Business Registration Management Agency, Ministry of Planning and Investment (Received the report on 24th December 2021).
 Corresponding index of the third quarter in 2021: 13.2% of enterprises rated their business and production situation better than the previous quarter; 25.4% of enterprises said that the business and production situation was stable and 61.4% of enterprises rated that it was difficult compared to the previous quarter.
 According to the report of the Foreign Investment Department, Ministry of Planning and Investment received on 22/12/2021.
 Total export and import turnover of goods in 2020 reached 545.32 billion USD, up 5.3% over last year, of which exports reached 282.63 billion USD, increased by 6.9%; import reached 262.69 billion USD, went up by 3.7%.
 Data for December 2021 provided by the General Department of Customs on December 28, 2021
 Merchandise export price index/ Merchandise import price index.