Despite there are many difficulties due to the impact of diseases on livestock, extreme changes of weather and climate, livestock has basically met the set targets, maintained high growth rate and fully met domestic demand and exportation. They have the development step in both quantity and quality, becoming a major commodity production industry, creating livelihoods and improving the life of millions of farming households. Especially, population of pig is gradually recovering after a affected period by African swine fever.
In 2019 pig farming is heavily affected by African swine fever. From the beginning of February 2019 to July 22, 2019, after only 6 months of discovery, African swine fever occurred 6016 communes in 558 districts of 62/63 provinces. The number of destroyed pigs was 3.7 million equivalent to destroyed weight 211.5 thousand tons. As of December 19, 2019, African swine fever occurred in 8,527 communes in 667 districts of all localities nationwide with a total of nearly 6 million destroyed pigs equivalent to a total weight of 340.8 thousand tons. The country’s total pig herd in December 2019 decreased by 25.5% compared to the same period in 2018.
By 2020, African swine fever has been well controlled, the total number of destroyed pigs is equaling 1.5% compared with 2019. This is an important foundation for farmers to re-herd and restore herd pigs like previous time. The total number of pigs in December 2020 increased by 17% compared to the same period in 2019. However, the re-herding is still slow, especially in the first months of 2020. Due to damaged by African swine fever for a long time, many livestock households cannot re-herd immediately because many difficulties such as limited capital resources and the high price of breeders from 2.5 to 3 million per breeder. Livestock farms re-herd carefully because of the large investment cost and concerns about the diseases return while there is no vaccine for disease prevention. The re-herding takes place in large livestock establishments, in businesses with sufficient resources and initiative to breed. This is the main reason of re-herding can not be fast like expectation.
In the first months of 2021, the African swine fever has been basically controlled, only arising small outbreaks. The total number of pigs recovered quickly, the number of destroyed pigs in the first 3 months of 2021 (as of March 19) was more than 3.2 thousand heads, down 87.9% over the same period last year. It is estimated that, the population of pigs in January 2021 increased by 16.2% over the same period last year and in February 2021 increased by 15.5%. By March 2021, they increased by 11.6% over the same period in 2020.
After the African swine fever was controlled, the pig herd gradually recovered, the live weight output of live weight basically met the consumption demand of the people. In 2019, the output of live-weight meat production reached 3,328.8 thousand tons, down 14.1% compared to 2018 (the year without African swine fever). In 2020, the production of pig living weight was estimated at 3,474.9 thousand tons, increasing by 4.4% over the same period in 2019 (the fourth quarter was estimated at 991.8 thousand tons, increasing by 30%). However, compared to 2018 (the year without African swine fever), the output of pig living weight for the whole year 2020 decreased by 10% and the output in the fourth quarter of 2020 is equivalent to the same period in 2018. In the first quarter of 2021, output of pig living weight was estimated at 1,018.8 thousand tons, increasing by 7.5% over the same period last year.
In the first months of 2020, when the pig herd has a sharp decline due to the large number of destroyed pigs at the end of 2019, the price of pork has been complicated and high across the country. Price of pig living weight reached 100,000 VND/kg in several Northern provinces. In this situation, the Prime Minister asked ministries, agencies and localities to focus closely on the implementation of pork management according to the principle: This is an important commodity to serve the essential consumption, the culture of Vietnamese food consumption. In the context of complicated epidemics and inadequate supply, the price of pork is the market price under the state management; a focus on promoting production, breeding, re-herding, processing, regulation and balance supply and demand to stabilize pork prices. Drastically implement measures to combat speculation, profiteering, manipulating and raising unreasonable prices. As a result, in the last months of 2020, the pig herd has recovered quickly, the supply is starting to be stable, the output increased gradually, causing the price of pork on the market to decrease gradually and stabilize.
The price of pig products in the fourth quarter of 2020 decreased by 6.1% compared to the previous quarter. On average, the price of live hog in the fourth quarter of 2020 in the Northern provinces ranges from 65,000-70,000 VND / kg (a decrease of about 12,500 VND / kg); Central and Central Highlands from 66,000-71,000 VND / kg (down about 13,000 VND / kg); the South from 69,000-72,000 VND / kg (down about 12,000 VND / kg). As of January 22, the price of live hog in the North fluctuated between 83,000 and 86,000 VND / kg; in the Central and Central Highlands regions between 81,000 and 84,000 VND / kg; in the South is about 80,000 – 83,000 VND / kg, compared with the same period of 12/2020, the price of live pork has increased by more than 10,000 VND / kg. To February (as of February 22), the price of live hog in the North fluctuates between 76,000 and 79,000 VND / kg, the price of live pork in the Central, Central Highlands is 74,000 – 77,000 VND / kg, in the South. from 76,000 – 79,000 VND / kg. Compared with the same period of the previous month, the price of live hog in February 2021 decreased from 4,000-7,000 VND / kg. Generally in the first quarter of 2021, the average price of live hog in the North ranged from 74,000 to 85,000 VND / kg; Central and Central Highlands from 72,000 to 80,000 VND / kg; South from 78,000-82,000 VND / kg.
By 2021, the livestock industry strives to achieve growth of about 5.5% – 6%. Production of meat of all kinds reached more than 5.7 million tons, of which: Pork reached about 3.67 million tons (up 6.1%), poultry meat reached about 1.5 million tons (up 5.8%). , grass-eating cattle meat reached about 547.3 thousand tons (up 7.9%). To achieve the above target and continue to maintain good development of livestock production, the livestock industry needs to continue to well implement the contents and objectives set out by the Government in the Strategy for Livestock Development for the period of 2021 – 2030, vision to 2045 (according to Decision No. 1520 / QD-TTg- October 2020). Accordingly, to focus on promoting the restructuring of the livestock industry; implementing solutions to promote pig re-herd; develop pig raising models in a linked chain suitable to the production of each region and each market segment. Improve capacity for centralized slaughter and industrial processing of pork products; to efficiently use pig breeding wastes to ensure safety and protect the environment.