ࡱ> []Zq` 8bjbjqPqP 4B:: *      8J 4~ ;* :::::::$<h/?;96 6 6 ; W;:::6 -  ::6 :::: p 8<::m;0;:?6::?:?:0 Z @:8 4l ;;p:X ;6 6 6 6 d   GII THIU CC CH S SNG TO V CH S TI NNG TVT(*) Cc nc ang pht trin hin ti ang phn u xy dng mt x hi hc tp. Trong khi , Hoa K li ang xy dng mt x hi to mi trng thun li cho sng to. Chnh th, Hoa K l mt quc gia lun ng u v tim lc kinh t, khoa hc cng ngh, tim lc qun s v nng lc cnh tranh. Hoa K rt ch ti vic bi dng o to ngun nhn lc ti nng.  o lng cc loi nng lc , cc nh thng k Hoa K  a ra cc loi ch s. Sau y l mt s ch s quan trng. 1. Ch s cng ngh cao (High - Tech Index) Ch s ny do Ross Devol v Vin Nghin cu Milken ca ng xy dng. Ch s cng ngh cao da vo hai yu t c bn. - Sn lng cng ngh ca nhng ngnh s dng cng ngh cao (tnh bng t l phn trm so tng sn lng ca cc ngnh cng nghip Hoa K). - T l phn trm sn lng cng nghip c s dng cng ngh cao ca cc vng, cc khu vc kinh t so vi c nc. Theo s liu thng k ca Vn phng thng k lao ng M nm 1999, ch s  i vi khu vc nng nghip M l 0,36%, khu vc dch v l 43,4%. 2. Ch s i mi (Innovation Index) Ch s ny phn nh s lng pht minh sng ch bnh qun u ngi hng nm. Cc s liu hng nm s c c quan Patent and Trademark office cng b. 3. Ch s ti nng (Talent Index) Ch s ny dng nh gi kh nng ca vn nhn lc, c tnh bng s lng ngi c bng i hc tr ln. 4. Ch s sng to (Creativity Index) Ch s ny l mt ch s tng hp, c tnh ton da vo cc ch s i mi, ch s cng ngh cao, ch s Gay (ch s biu hin nhng cp c quan h tnh dc ng gii) Hoa K rt ch ti nhng khu vc c ch s sng to cao. Hng nm c quan thng k Hoa K u a ra bng xp hng v ch s sng to  cc bang, cc khu vc thuc bang. Th d s liu ca nm 1999 cho thy rng  nhng khu vc c hn 1 triu dn sinh sng th Ch s sng to  khu vc Austin c xp th 1, sau Francisco xp th 2, Seattle xp th 3, Boston xp th 5. Nu m rng quy m dn s ca khu vc v tnh ton kh nng sng to da vo ch s sng to, lc lng lao ng c kh nng sng to lm vic trong cc ngnh kinh t, c bit l khu vc dch v th Washington D.C c xp th 1, Raleigh - Durham c xp th 2 v Austin ch c xp th 3. 5. Ch s Gay (ch s v quan h ng gii) Ch s Gay do Gary Gates cng vi s hp tc vi Dau Black, Seth Sauder v Lowell Taylor xy dng. Ch s ny o t l cp c quan h ng gii so vi tng s cp v chng bnh thng. Sau djpr|~ $ > @      B D L N R T Z \ x z  @ ߺ#h,Jh,J5CJOJQJ^JaJ#h,Jh,JCJOJQJ^JaJo( h,Jh,JCJOJQJ^JaJ'h,Jh,J0J5CJOJQJ^JaJ#h,Jh,J5CJOJQJ^JaJh h,J5OJQJ^J;dr@ ^4 bh&)+.t272848gd,J$a$gd,J$d`a$gd $d8a$gd,J4888^`jl~8:^~4  VX^`TV$(ȶȶȶȶȶȶȶȶȶȶȶȶȶȶȶȶȣ'h,Jh,J@CJOJQJ^JaJo($h,Jh,J@CJOJQJ^JaJ#h,Jh,JCJOJQJ^JaJo( h,Jh,JCJOJQJ^JaJ&h,Jh,J5CJOJQJ^JaJo(#h,Jh,J5CJOJQJ^JaJ8(02nr LNb>@np&\&^&r&t&&&''b'd''''''',(.(n(p((((((ůŞU#h,Jh,JCJOJQJ^JaJo( h,Jh,JCJOJQJ^JaJ*h,Jh,J5@CJOJQJ^JaJo('h,Jh,J5@CJOJQJ^JaJ'h,Jh,J@CJOJQJ^JaJo($h,Jh,J@CJOJQJ^JaJ6 xp hng ch s Gay ca tng vng so vi c nc. Vo nm 1990, Gary Gates lm vic ti Vin  th thuc Washington D.C s dng s liu iu tra dn s ca Hoa K v nhng ngi c quan h ng gii  cc khu vc khc nhau. iu th v  xy ra khi ng thy rng ti nhng ni c s dng cng ngh cao, l ni tp trung ng ngi c quan h ng gii. Da vo hin tng quan st c ng sp xp theo th t thi gian t u nm 1990 n 2000 v thy: - ? nhng ni c xp hng cao v ch s cng ngh cao, th d San Franciso th 1, Boston th 2, Settle th 3, Los Angeles th 4, Washington D.C th 5,.. th   ch s Gay cing c th hng cao. Th d San Francico th 1, Los Angeles th 3, Settle th 5,... - Mt s ngi phn i rng Gary ch quan st  nhng thnh ph cng ngh lu i.  cho khch quan, ng loi tr nhng khu vc  th ng dn (nhng thnh ph nu trn), ng m rng phm vi nghin cu sang nhng khu vc khc,  l nhng thnh ph nh hn nh: Iowa, Madison, Eugene, Oregon, Indiana, Bloomington,... nhng ni c ch s Gay ln, th   chnh l nhng ni tp trung cc ngnh cng nghip s dng cng ngh cao. - Cc s liu quan st v ch s Gay trong sut mt thi k 1990-2000 gip ng i n kt lun rng, ch s Gay l mt du hiu  d bo cho khu vc  tng trng mnh v l ni lun i mi cng ngh, ni tp trung cc ngnh cng nghip s dng cng ngh cao. Ni khc i l quan h gia ch s Gay vi ch s cng ngh cao l quan h cht ch, thun chiu. Nhm ngi Gay c trnh  khoa hc cng ngh cao hn nhm cng nhn bnh thng. X hi M lc u khng chp nhn cc cp c quan h ng gii, ging nh vic kh chp nhn ngi nc khc n nh c ti M. Ro cn  c d b, ngi nc ngoi n nh c ti M  tham gia vo cc hot ng nghin cu, sn xut tr thnh lc lng lao ng rt qu gi. Xu hng chng nhng ngi c quan h tnh dc ng gii  M ang gim. Tnh khoan dung ca x hi l ng lc cho s pht trin. Austin l mt vng ca M c ch s cng ngh cao c xp th hng cao,   tp trung nhng h gia nh ca ngi Gay. Hu ht h hot ng trong l)nh vc lp trnh my tnh. 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