ࡱ> @ abjbjFF (,,2222222FnVnVnV8VVFmXXXXXXXXȍʍʍʍʍʍʍ$#Ru92\XX\\22XX'\R$2X2Xȍ\ȍ22XX xnVހD =0m5x5FF222252,XYTZZXXXFF+,)FF,CHUN NGHO V THC O NGHO  MT S QUC GIA Nguyn Vn Phm V Hp tc Quc t Cc quc gia khc nhau s dng cc tiu chun khc nhau  nh gi mc  giu ngho. Nc M p dng mc chun t nhng nm 60 ca th k trc, c th, thu nhp 18.600  la/nm l ngng ngho i vi cc gia nh c bn ngi (gm b m v hai con), v thu nhp 9.573  la/nm l ngng ngho i vi ngi c thn trong  tui lao ng. Theo chun ny th nm 1993 nc M c 15,1% dn s ngho kh, nm 2000 t l  gim xung cn 11,3%, nhng ti nm 2003 th t l ngi ngho ca nc M tng ln 12,5% (tc l khong 35,9 triu ngi dn M sng trong tnh trng ngho i). Ma-lai-xi-a s dng tiu chun 9.910 ca-lo mt ngy tnh trn mt gia nh c hai ngi ln v ba tr em  lm ng ngho. n  p dng ngng ngho vi chun mc tiu th bnh qun u ngi hng ngy 2.400 ca-lo i vi vng nng thn v 2.100 ca-lo i vi vng  th. Pa-ki-xtan ly ng ngho l tiu th 2.350 ca-lo bnh qun mt ngi ln qui c hng ngy. Phi-lip-pin li ly ngng ngho  mc 2.000 ca-lo. Tng t, Xri Lan-ca: 2.500 ca-lo; N-pan: 2.124 ca-lo; Thi Lan: 2.099 ca-lo; Bang-la-et: 2.122 ca-lo; A-dec-bai-gian: 2.200 ca-lo; mt s quc gia khc li s dng ngng ngho l tiu th mt ngy 2.100 ca-lo mt ngi, nh Lo, Cam-pu-chia, Trung Quc, In--n-xi-a,... Ngay trong mt quc gia m ngi ta cing s dng cc tiu chun ngho khc nhau, v d  Xri Lan-ca, cc nh nghin cu khng phi lc no cing ly 2.500 ca-lo lm ngng ngho. Vit Nam cing khng nm ngoi tnh trng y, vn cn tnh trng thiu thng nht v tiu chun ngho i quc gia. Nm 2000, B Lao ng, Thng binh v X hi a ra ngng ngho mi lm cn c xc nh mc tiu xo i gim ngho cho giai on 2001 - 2005. Ngng ngho  c n nh cho tng khu vc: nng thn min ni, hi o: 80.000 ng/ngi/thng; nng thn ng bng: 100.000 ng/ngi/thng; thnh th: 150.000 ng. Tiu chun c Tng cc Thng k s dng trong cc cuc iu tra mc sng dn c l mc tiu th 2.100 ca-lo/ngy/ngi ging nh mt s quc gia khu vc. Di y l chun mc ngho ca mt s nc: Quc gian v tnhChun nghoThu nhpChi tiung Trung QucNhn dn t/nm625,00ng Nam Cam-pu-chiaRin/ngy1.837,00 LoKip/thng20.911,00 Phi-lip-pinP-s/nm11.605,00 Thi LanBt/thng882,00 Vit NamNghn ng/nm1.790,00 Nam n Thnh thRu-pi n /thng454,11 Nng thnRu-pi n /thng327,56 N-panRu-pi N Pan/nm4.404,00 Pa-ki-xtanRu-pi Pa-ki-xtan/thng748,56 Xri Lan-caRu-pi Xri Lan-ca/thng791,67 Trung A-dc-bai-gianNghn Ma-nat/nm120,00 Ca-dc-xtanTen-gh/thng4.007,00 C-r-g-xtanSm/nm7.005,63 Thi B^`bF @B>JNNZZZZx[p]p]ppppp[pIp#hzhZ15CJOJQJ^JaJU$hzhHL@CJOJQJ^JaJ hzhHLCJOJQJ^JaJ+hzhz5CJOJQJ^JaJmH sH %hHL5CJOJQJ^JaJmH sH +hzhHL5CJOJQJ^JaJmH sH #hzhHL5CJOJQJ^JaJhzhz5OJQJ^JaJhHL5OJQJ^JaJhzhHL5OJQJ^JaJ`bF $<T $$Ifa$gdz$a$gdz $ a$gdz$ d`da$gdz$a$gdz aaTVXZl~wkkkk $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl44F ! x0 !    4 lal~bVVJJ $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl441\P ! 0 !4 lalg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lalg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lal(*>g[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lal>@H\^tg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 laltvg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lalg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lal&(<g[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lal<>JLNPg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lalPR^`bdg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd $$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 laldfzgWK?? $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdz$ $If^ a$gdzkd $$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lalgWK?? $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdz$ $If^ a$gdzkd $$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lal .0Dg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd $$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lalDF\g[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd $$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lalg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lal  g[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lal ,NP`g[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lal`bzg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdz$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lalg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdu$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lalNNNNg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdp$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lalnh DngPhi-ji la/tun83,00 Mic-r-n-xi-a la M/nm767,58 Xa-moaTa-la/tun37,49 Tn-gaPan-ga/nm8.061,00 Tu-va-lu la C/tun84,24 Hu qu ca vic s dng cc tiu chun khc nhau y gia cc quc gia lm ngng ngho  gy ra nhng kh khn ln cho vic so snh quc t. Ngay c vic so snh ng thi theo thi gian v tnh trng ngho ca mt quc gia cing thiu chnh xc. V d nc M dng mc chun ca gn na th k trc, khi m mu tiu dng ca dn c khc hn vi ngy nay,  phn nh tnh trng ngho i hin nay l khng ph hp. Na th k trc, ngi dn M chi gn mt phn ba thu nhp cho n ung, nhng ngy nay h ch chi 13,2% thu nhp cho lng thc v chi mt phn ba thu nhp cho nh . Vic s dng tiu thc t l dn s sng di mc ngho v t l h gia nh ngho cing khng ng nht, v s lng thnh vin trong gia nh rt khc nhau. T l h ngho thp, nhng nu  li l cc h ng ngi, th khi chuyn sang t l dn s ngho cha chc  thp.  m bo tnh so snh quc t ca ch tiu t l dn s sng di mc ngho, Ngn hng Th gii a ra 2 mc chun l thu nhp di 1  la M 1 ngy v thu nhp di 2  la M 1 ngy c chuyn i theo sc mua tng ng (PPP - Purchasing Power Parity) ca  la M nm 1993, c ngh)a l tng ng vi mc 1,08 USD/ngy/ngi v mc 2,16 USD/ngy/ngi ca nm 2002. Trn c s , Ngn hng Pht trin Chu  a ra cc con s v t l ngho ca mt s nc nh sau: T L DN S SNG DI MC NGHO CA MT S NC (%) Quc giaNmTheo chun ngho quc giaTheo chun ngho quc t1 USD/ngy2 USD/ngyng Trung Quc2001 16,646,7Mng C199835,627,074,9ng Nam Cam-pu-chia199935,934,137,7In--n-xi-a200218,27,552,4Lo199738,639,081,7Ma-lai-xi-a19997,50,29,3Mi-an-ma199722,9Phi-lip-pin200034,015,547,5Thi Lan20029,81,932,5Vit Nam200228,913,158,5Nam Bang-la-t200049,836,082,8n 199926,136,081,3Man-i-v199843,00,12,9N-pan199642,039,180,9Pa-ki-xtan199932,625,377,2Xri Lan-ca199525,26,645,4Trung A-dc-bai-gian200149,63,733,4Ca-dc-xtan200227,90,18,5C-r-g-xtan200052,00,927,2Ta-gi-ki-xtan200356,613,958,7Tuc-m-ni-xtan199829,912,144,0U-d-b-ki-xtan200027,517,371,7Thi Bnh DngMic-r-n-xi-a199827,95,219,7Pa-pua Niu Ghi-n199637,524,654,4Xa-moa200220,35,5Tn-ga200122,74,012,6 NN(N>N@NNNg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdk$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lalNNPNnNNNNg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdf$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lalNNNNNNg[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkda$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lalNNNNN Og[[OO $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd\$$Ifl\P ! 0 !4 lal OO O[N[X[b[l[v[TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdL$$Iflr l!TT0!4 lav[x[[[[[[TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdO$$Iflr l!TT0!4 lax[[[[n]v]x]z]]]^^^^``aaaaʹʨhz hzh<CJOJQJ^JaJ hzhZ1CJOJQJ^JaJ hzhHLCJOJQJ^JaJ#hzhZ15CJOJQJ^JaJ#hzhHL5CJOJQJ^JaJ[[[[[[[TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdR$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la[[[\ \\\TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdU $$Iflr l!TT0!4 la\\&\0\:\D\N\TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdX!$$Iflr l!TT0!4 laN\P\h\r\z\\\TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd["$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la\\\\\\\TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd^#$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la\\\\\\\TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkda$$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la\\ ]]]&]0]TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdd%$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la0]2]D]N]X]b]l]TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdg&$$Iflr l!TT0!4 lal]n]z]|]~]]]TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdj'$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la]]]]]]]TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdm($$Iflr l!TT0!4 la]]]]]]]TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdp)$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la]]^^$^,^4^TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkds*$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la4^6^D^N^X^b^l^TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdv+$$Iflr l!TT0!4 lal^n^^^^^^TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkdy,$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la^^^^^^^TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd|-$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la^^^^___TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd.$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la__$_._8_@_J_TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd/$$Iflr l!TT0!4 laJ_L_d_n_x___TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd0$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la_______TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd1$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la_____``TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd2$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la``4`>`H`R`\`TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd3$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la\`^`~`````TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd4$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la```````TH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd5$$Iflr l!TT0!4 la````a aaTH<<<< $$Ifa$gdz $$Ifa$gdzkd6$$Iflr l!TT0!4 laaa041AU[    $ . / : G Q \ ] g q r z {    " # . 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