ࡱ> @ fbjbjFF (r,,E*2222666J8*$N$JRx*~~~~~wwwwwww$|yR{~w!6"w22~~ xwww]2~6~wwwwwJ6w~r Syxuww"x0RxwL|w|L|wJJ2222L|6w4wwwJJD dwJJ MT S NT V CHT LNG TNG TRNG KINH T Trnh Quang Vng, Ng Th Kim Dung V H thng Ti khon Quc gia Nhng nm 90 ca th k 20  chng kin s tin b vt bc ca cc nc trn th gii nhng ng thi cing chng kin nn kinh t cc nc bt u i vo tnh trng thoi tro, tr tr, k c  nhng nc m trc y  tng t c tc  tng trng mnh. Chnh s o ln ny  cho chng ta nhng kinh nghim b ch v phi lm nhng g  ng gp vo s tng trng kinh t. Vn  ch yu  y khng ch l tc  tng trng m l cht lng tng trng trong s pht trin kinh t ni chung. Tuy nhin, vn  cht lng tng trng ht sc phc tp, c lin quan n nhiu yu t. Bi vit s  cp mt s nt v cht lng tng trng kinh t. 1. u t pht trin cc loi ti sn c bn Nhng ti sn ng vai tr quan trng trong qu trnh pht trin kinh t ca tng nc l: ti sn v tch lu ti sn vt cht, con ngi - ngun nhn lc ca x hi v ti sn l ngun ti nguyn thin nhin. Tin b khoa hc cng ngh v k thut c mt vai tr quan trng v nh hng ln n vic sn xut v s dng cc loi ti sn trn.  tng bc nng cao tc  tng trng kinh t cn quan tm n tng tch lu ti sn hu hnh, ngoi ra, cc loi ti sn khc nh con ngi cing nh ngun ti nguyn thin nhin cing phi c quan tm tng xng. Tch lu ti sn, tin b khoa hc k thut, nng sut lao ng ca cc loi ti sn ny c ngh)a quyt nh n nhng tc ng lu di chng i ngho. Bn cnh u t vo ti sn vt cht, con ngi, ngun ti nguyn thin nhin cng vi i mi chnh sch v phng thc qun l kinh t - x hi cing gp phn nng cao tin b khoa hc k thut v nng sut cc nhn t tng hp (TFP), t  li thc y tng trng. Tuy nhin, nhng sai lch v chnh sch, tham nhing, qun l sai lm, bt n th trng v nhng tc ng bn ngoi cing c th a t nc theo hng sai lm v tch lu ti sn khng cn i. Tnh trng ny c th lm cho tng trng thu nhp v li ch thp di mc tim nng. ?nh hng ca nhng chnh sch sai lm v tch lu ngun nhn lc v ti nguyn lin quan n ti sn vt cht c th lm gim mc tng trng v phc li. Ngc li, nu khng ch c tham nhing, qun l tt v c chnh sch hp l c th thc y tng tch lu ti sn, gp phn tng trng nhanh hn. Tham nhing c tc ng tiu cc i vi nn kinh t: Th nht l lm gim lung vn u t, hn ch tng trng kinh t v gy bt n nh kinh t do gii kinh doanh coi  l mt loi thu; Th hai l lm st gim v sai lch cc ngun lc trong nn kinh t (tht thu thu, u t vo cc l)nh vc/d n thiu hiu qu, bp mo/ct xn cc khon chi tiu ngn sch, gim cht lng kt cu h tng, kch thch ngun nhn lc tm kim c quyn, c li thay v n lc nng cao nng lc,...); Th ba l  gnh nng ln vai ngi ngho; Th t l lm gim st lng tin ca ngi lao ng i vi b my nh nc. Qu tp trung vo tch lu ti sn vt cht, cc nc ang pht trin c th b cun vo thc hin cc chnh sch tr cp u t XDCB. iu ny dn n tnh trng cc doanh nghip c quyn lun c m bo v li ch. Trong khi , c tnh trng u t khng ng mc vo gio dc, y t v sc kho, tnh trng khai thc qu mc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin dn n gi tr loi ti sn l ngun nhn lc b hn ch v khng c nh gi ng mc, ti nguyn thin nhin b tn ph. Tng hp tng th kinh t cc nc trn th gii, nhng nm u thp k 90, tng tr cp cho nng nghip, nng lng, giao thng ng b v ng thu  t mc d tnh t 700 t  la n 900 t  la, trong  khong 2/3 l  cc nc cng nghip pht trin v 1/3  cc nc ang pht trin. S tr cp ny  nh hng khng nh n li ch ca ngi sn xut nh, c bit l ngi lao ng nng nghip  cc nc km pht trin. Hin nay nh gi s pht trin kinh t ngi ta thng s dng ch tiu tng trng Tng sn phm trong nc (hoc GDP bnh qun u ngi) nh l i din cho s pht trin. Mt phn ca tin b x hi l s kt hp gia tng trng GDP v tng trng li ch c nhn. Tuy nhin, s tin cy vo GDP nh mt dng c duy nht o lng s pht trin x hi l mt hn ch rt ln. Tng trng GDP c th vi cht lng cao hoc cht lng thp. Mt s qu trnh v chnh sch to ra s tng trng GDP song song vi qu trnh tng trng ca ngun nhn lc v ti nguyn thin nhin, n trc tip nh hng n sc kho con ngi v vai tr sn xut ca h. Nhng th khc to ra cht lng tng trng thp khng lin kt vi s tin b ca con ngi v ci thin mi trng ti nguyn thin nhin.  tng hp v cht lng tng trng kinh t trong nh gi v s pht trin cn a ra nhng ch tiu v sc kho ca con ngi. M hnh di y m t nh hng v tc ng ca chnh sch v qun l n cc yu t tng trng GDP. Nu qun l tt, gim thiu tham nhing dn n u t c hiu qu, s dng ngun nhn lc c cht lng, kinh t s pht trin, chuyn i theo hng pht trin cng nghip ch bin v dch v, gim khai thc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin; nu x l ng nhng bt n trn th trng trong tng giai on pht trin kinh t th s gim thiu sai st v tng u t cho tch lu ti sn v u t cho ngun nhn lc x hi. Mi yu t trn u dn n ti u ho s dng cc ngun ti sn thc y tng trng GDP v phc li x hi, nng cao mc sng ca dn c, duy tr s bn vng ca mi trZ\     2 Z b d n p r Zͻͻͻͻͻͻ͙ͬuauuL(h45hX:CJOJQJ^JaJmH*sH*'h45hX:5@CJOJQJ^JaJ h45hX:CJOJQJ^JaJ$h45hYz@CJOJQJ^JaJ$h45hX:@CJOJQJ^JaJh455CJOJQJ^JaJ#h45hYz5CJOJQJ^JaJ#h45hX:5CJOJQJ^JaJh45hX:5OJQJ^JaJh45hYz5OJQJ^JaJ\2 p r f D$| #L'."<$< $ a$gd45$ `a$gd45$a$gd45 $ a$gd45ddfD$|##4<"<$<2<4<6<<<L<d<f<H|HVSzSdddvhZF& j<h45hX:CJOJQJ^JaJhk CJOJQJ^JaJh45CJOJQJ^JaJ4jh45h45CJOJQJU^JaJmHnHu#h45hYz5CJOJQJ^JaJ#h45hX:5CJOJQJ^JaJU#h45hX:6CJOJQJ^JaJ$h45hX:@CJOJQJ^JaJ$h45hX:@CJOJQJ^JaJ h45hX:CJOJQJ^JaJng thin nhin. M HNH  Tip tc l thuc vo tch lu ti sn sn xut s c th b sai lch trong chnh sch kinh t. V d, khi u t nhiu vo ti sn sn xut ni chung,  duy tr hon vn cn n khon tr cp x hi ln hn  thu ht ngun vn trong nc v nc ngoi. Hn na, thc y tng trng qua cc chnh sch khng tr trng n mai sau c th dn n khai thc ba bi rng v cc loi ti nguyn thin nhin khc lm cn kit cc ngun lc t nhin v tn hi n tnh bn vng ca mi trng. Nm 1997,  cc nc ang pht trin, tng tit kim trong nc khong 25% GDP. Tuy nhin,  x l tnh trng cn kit mi trng nn tng tit kim thc t ch cn 14% GDP. Trng hp tng t cing xy ra  Nigeria vi tng tit kim l 22%, nhng tit kim thc t l -12%; Lin bang Nga l 25% nhng thc t l -1,6% (theo World Bank 1999). Nghin cu v  ra nhng phng php t sai lch, thch hp  p dng nhm pht trin 3 loi ti sn. Cc chnh sch ng n tng thi k c th gp phn lm tng cc loi ti sn ny. u t cho gio dc  cc cp khc nhau, tng ng vi tng thi k pht trin chung, va to ra s tng trng ngun lao ng v ti sn. u t cho ti sn t nhin, nh sc kho ca con ngi, cho dn c ngho sng ph thuc vo ti nguyn thin nhin  bo m kinh t. S dng hiu qu cc ti nguyn ny cing quan trng nh lm tng chng. V th  tng cc nhn t nng sut tng hp cn c s qun l tt, gim tc ng thi qu ca c quyn, c li. 2. Cc hng iu chnh u t, chnh sch theo thi gian Trong qu trnh tng trng cc hng phn b u t ng vai tr cc k quan trng. S phn b u t hp l hn v ngun lao ng, t ai v cc loi ti sn khc c ngh)a l phn b hp l hn cc c hi kim sng, nng cao nng lc ca con ngi  tn dng cng ngh khoa hc v to ra thu nhp. Tng trng bn vng cing rt quan trng trong qu trnh tng trng kinh t c cht lng. Thu nhp ca ngi lao ng ngho rt d b nh hng bi cc cuc khng hong, c bit i vi ngi dn khng c ti sn nh t ai, tay ngh thp v khng  tin tit kim  chi tiu dng ca h trong nhng ngy kh khn. Hng triu ngi c mc sng gn i ngho b y tr li tnh trng i ngho do cc c sc t bn ngoi, hoc do kt qu tn ph ca thin tai. V vy  tng trng kinh t tt v gim c i ngho th mc  pht trin kinh t phi n nh, phc li phi tri rng, v sn xut trong nc phi c sc cnh tranh cao, t ph thuc vo nc ngoi. u t cho pht trin sn xut phi hp l, hi ho theo tng thi k, ph hp vi trnh  k thut ca ngi lao ng v kh nng ti chnh,... s khng gy tn tht cho nn kinh t v thc y x hi pht trin nhanh v bn vng. Nn kinh t pht trin vng chc s chuyn dch t sn xut nng, lm nghip, thu sn v khai thc ti nguyn thin nhin sang sn xut cng nghip ch bin v sn xut dch v. 3. C ch qun l C ch qun l tt l c s  tin hnh mi vic nhm thc y tng trng kinh t. S hot ng c hiu qu ca cc b my, cc ch  qui nh, cc c quyn, cc th ch minh bch v r rng m bo cho cc qui nh ca lut v cc vn  lin quan  tng trng v pht trin. Tc ng ca qun l km, s phin nhiu mang tnh quan liu v tham nhing i ngc li v lm tn hi n tng trng bn vng. Do  u t nhm hon thin nng lc qun l l mt trong nhng u tin hng u  pht trin kinh t ni chung. Tin hnh ci cch chnh sch ca Chnh ph t trn xung di vi cc chin lc pht trin r rng theo tng thi k cng vi khuyn khch cc doanh nghip cnh tranh lnh mnh, nng cao quyn cng dn v to cho h ting ni mnh hn l gp phn trc tip vo tng trng kinh t x hi. T nhng lun gii  trnh by  trn, c th tip cn khi nim tng trng kinh t c cht lng nh sau: Nn kinh t tng trng c cht lng l nn kinh t: "Pht trin nhanh, hiu qu v bn vng, nng sut nhn t tng hp v nng sut lao ng x hi tng v n nh, mc sng ca ngi dn c nng cao khng ngng, c cu kinh t chuyn dch theo nh hng ca tng thi k pht trin ca t nc, sn xut c tnh cnh tranh cao, tng trng kinh t i i vi thc hin tin b khoa hc k thut trong sn xut, thc hin cng bng x hi v bo v mi trng; Pht trin kinh t gn cht vi bo v v ci thin mi trng, bo m s hi ho gia mi trng nhn to vi mi trng thin nhin, gi gn a dng sinh hc . Nh vy nn kinh t c gi l "pht trin c cht lng" trc tin phi l nn "kinh t pht trin bn vng". Pht trin bn vng l qu trnh ti sn xut m rng khng ngng nn kinh t, x hi trn c s mt phng thc sn xut hin i p ng c yu cu tng trng, pht trin kinh t x hi hin i, ng thi bo v c mi trng nhm duy tr mi quan h cn bng, hi ho gia con ngi v th gii t nhin, duy tr c nn tng ca s pht trin lu di. 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