ࡱ> @ ȩbjbjFF (,,I2222222Fnnn8<Fu     LuNuNuNuNuNuNu$vRyru!2ru22  uuuu]2 2 LuuLuuu22u  0exnquLuu0uuyftyuFF2222y2u<" u#7ruruFF u FF CC TIU THC PHN NH CHT LNG S LIU THNG K V MI LIN H VI NGUYN TC C BN CA THNG K CHNH THC ThS. Nguyn Bch Lm Vin Khoa hc Thng k Trong nhng nm gn y, ngnh Thng k lun quan tm ti vic p ng nhu cu ngy cng cao ca ngi dng tin v nng cao cht lng ca s liu thng k. Bo co thng k v tnh hnh kinh t x hi hng thng tr thnh ti liu chnh thc trong cc k hp ca Chnh ph. Vn  cht lng s liu lun c t ra khi s dng, nhng thc t a s ngi dng tin cha hiu mt cch y  th no l cht lng ca s liu thng k?  to ra s liu, c quan Thng k phi tun th nhng nguyn tc g? Bi vit ny s gii thiu nh ngh)a, cc tiu thc phn nh cht lng s liu thng k v mi nguyn tc c bn ca thng k chnh thc. 1. Cht lng s liu thng k nh ngh)a chnh thc v cht lng s liu do c quan Thng k quc gia ca cc nc trong T chc Hp tc v Pht trin kinh t (OECD) a ra vo gia thp k 90 ca th k trc v h nh ngh)a: "Cht lng ca s liu thng k l s ph hp cho s dng ca khch hng"(1). nh ngh)a a ra qu chung chung v tru tng, cc nh Thng k  c th v chi tit ha nh ngh)a ny qua su tiu thc phn nh cht lng s liu sau y: a. Tnh ph hp: Tnh ph hp ca s liu thng k c th hin qua mc  p ng nhu cu thng tin ca ngi s dng. nh gi mc  ph hp ca s liu thng k ph thuc vo nhu cu khc nhau v hay thay i ca ngi dng tin. C quan Thng k khng th p ng tt c nhu cu ca ngi dng tin, m phi xc nh nhng loi s liu no cn bin son nhm gii quyt bt cp gia nhu cu thng tin a dng vi ngun lc c hn  sao cho p ng ti a nhu cu ca ngi s dng. b. Tnh chnh xc: Tnh chnh xc ca s liu th hin qua mc  phn nh st thc cc hin tng kinh t, x hi ca cc ch tiu thng k. Khng th i hi s liu thng k phn nh ng hin tng v thng tin thng k dng  tnh ton lun cha ng sai s h thng v sai s ngu nhin. Nhng sai s nh hng n tnh chnh xc ca s liu thng k din ra trong qu trnh thu thp thng tin nh: phm vi thu thp, cch ly mu v trong qu trnh tnh ton,v.v... c. Tnh kp thi: Tnh kp thi ca s liu thng k biu th  tr v thi gian gia thi k hay thi im s liu thng k phn nh vi thi im cng b s liu. Lun c s nh i gia tnh chnh xc v tnh kp thi ca s liu thng k, yu cu s liu cng nhanh th  chnh xc ca s liu cng km. Ni cch khc, tnh kp thi lun nh hng ti tnh chnh xc ca s liu thng k. Hin nay vo khong ngy 25 ca thng cui qu, Tng cc Thng k phi cung cp s liu v tng sn phm trong nc (GDP) ca qu  phc v cho phin hp Chnh ph. Vo thi im hot ng sn xut ca qu cha kt thc, thng tin v kt qu sn xut mi ch di dng c tnh, do vy cht lng ca ch tiu GDP qu s khng cao. Ngay c cc nc pht trin cing nh cc nc trong khu vc, s liu v GDP qu c cng b ln u sau 6 tun tnh t thi im kt thc qu. d. Kh nng tip cn: Kh nng tip cn ca s liu thng k th hin mc  d dng  c c s liu t c quan Thng k. Kh nng tip cn th hin  hai kha cnh: Mc  d dng  c th xc minh s liu thng k cn c; tnh ph hp ca cc phng thc tip cn s liu. e. Kh nng gii thch: Kh nng gii thch ca s liu thng k phn nh mc  sn c ca nhng thng tin b sung v cc bng gii trnh cn thit  gip cho ngi dng tin hiu v s dng s liu mt cch chnh xc v hp l, bao gm: khi nim ca ch tiu; cc phng php phn loi ang p dng; phng php thu thp v x l thng tin; phng php lun dng trong tnh ton ch tiu v ch r mc  chnh xc ca s liu v thng tin thng k. f. Tnh cht ch: Tnh cht ch ca s liu thng k phn nh mc  kt hp s liu t cc ngun khc nhau  a vo cng mt lc  s liu rng hn theo thi gian. V vy tnh cht ch i hi c quan Thng k phi s dng thng nht cc khi nim, phn loi chun v phng php lun trong ton b h thng thng k. Su tiu thc phn nh cht lng s liu thng k c mi quan h qua li v tc ng ln nhau. Cho n nay cc nh Thng k cha tm ra mt m hnh hiu qu  gp tt c nhng nt c trng ca su tiu thc nu trn vo mt ch tiu duy nht.  m bo cht lng ca s liu, c quan Thng k quc gia a ra cc bin php qun l ph hp vi tng tiu thc. Bt k mt hot ng no tc ng vo mt tiu thc s nh hng ti cc tiu thc cn li. Hin nay c quan Thng k mt s nc thuc OECD  xy dng khung qun l cht lng lin quan ti su tiu thc phn nh nu trn. " Qun l tnh ph hp: Trc ht, c quan Thng k quc gia phi xc nh nhng loi s liu thng k no cn bin son phc v cho ngi dng tin, ng thi xc nh v phn b ngun lc cho tng hot ng thng k. Cn c k hoch r sot nh k nhu cu ca ngi s dng  iu chnh s liu thng k u ra nhm loi tr vic cung cp nhng s liu ngi dng tin khng cn v khng c s liu ngi s dng quan tm. Khi iu chnh, phi lu ti yu t kinh ph v s ph thuc qua li ln nhau gia cc ngun thng tin u vo  bin son cc ch tiu u ra. Chng hn thng tin u vo  tnh ch tiu doanh s bn l hng ha v dch v tiu dng x hi cing l thng tin u vo  tnh ch tiu tiu dng cui cng v hng ho v dch v ca h gia nh. " Qun l tnh chnh xc: Cht lng thng tin u vo quyt nh tnh chnh xc ca s liu thng k. Hin nay, iu tra l knh thng tin ch yu v vy qun l cht lng thng tin u vo phi c bit quan tm ti ba giai on ca qu trnh iu tra: Thit k chng trnh; thc hin iu tra v nh gi cht lng s liu iu tra. Khi thit k chng trnh iu tra trc ht cn lu ti s nh i gia tnh chnh xc, yu t chi ph, tnh kp thi v gnh nng ca i tng iu tra. V vy khi quyt nh cc loi thng tin cn thu thp qua iu tra, cc nh thit k phi bit tn dng nhng thng tin  c t h s hnh chnh v t cc cuc iu tra khc  gim thiu thng tin trng lp. Cht lng ca thng tin thu c t iu tra ph thuc vo nhiu yu t nh: Thit k chng trnh; cc cng c s dng trong iu tra v c ch gim st vic thc hin iu tra - y l yu t rt quan trng. Cc gim st vin iu tra cn nm bt nhng vn  ny sinh  x l kp thi trong qu trnh thc hin iu tra. nh gi cht lng s liu iu tra thng thc hin qua 4 kha cnh sau: nh gi phm vi ca cuc iu tra v so snh vi tng th mc tiu; nh gi sai s mu, sai s chun hay h s bin thin; nh gi t l khng tr li v cc yu t khc nh hng ti cht lng, tnh ph hp ca kt qu iu tra. " Qun l tnh kp thi: C quan thng k a ra thi im cng b s liu da trn tnh ton v s nh i vi tnh chnh xc v tng chi ph  thu thp, bin son v qua tm hiu ngi s dng xem h thch c s liu cng b chm hn nhng vi  chnh xc cao hn hay h thch c s liu sm hn vi  chnh xc km hn. Tnh kp thi l mt c trng quan trng ca s liu thng k, do vy cn gim st c trng ny theo thi gian i vi tt c cc hot ng thng k. Mt bin php qun l tnh kp thi ca s liu  l c quan Thng k thng bo trc thi im cng b cc loi s liu. Bng cch ny, ngi dng tin s ch ng c k hoch ca h v cing ngm t ra mt cam kt ni b  c quan Thng k thc hin theo cam kt  thng bo. iu ny cing ngn nga cc i tng c lin quan d nh dng nh hng ca mnh y li thi im cng b s liu  phc v cho li ch ring ca h. R sot v nh gi nh k  tm ra nhng tn ti v s lng, phng thc t chc thc hin cc hot ng thng k, ngun lc v cch phn b ngun lc cing l bin php qun l tnh kp thi ca s liu thng k. Ngy nay vi nhng k thut mi pht trin, c bit l tin hc gp phn nng cao tnh kp thi ca s liu thng k. " Qun l kh nng tip cn: Nu ngi s dng khng bit c nhng loi s liu thng k g, khng bit thng tin  u v lm th no  tip cn c, khi  s liu thng k khng c gi tr. V vy, c quan Thng k phi a ra chnh sch v h thng ph hp  ph bin s liu, ng thi m bo tt c sn phm thng k phi c trong h thng danh mc sn phm ca ngnh. C quan Thng k cing xc nh nhng loi s liu no s c cung cp min ph cho ngi s dng qua cc phng tin thng tin i chng nh: trang Web, hp bo, internet, h thng th vin,& " Qun l kh nng gii thch: Nu ngi s dng khng hiu hoc hiu sai s liu thng k, khi  s liu khng c gi tr hoc tr nn bt li. V vy, c quan Thng k cn gii thch cho ngi s dng hiu r cc loi s liu thng k hin c. Vi ngh)a , qun l kh nng gii thch s liu thng k lin quan ti vic cung cp nhng thng tin  lm r s liu, bao gm: - Cc khi nim, phn loi hin ang p dng  bin son s liu; - Phng php thu thp v tnh ton s liu; - nh gi tnh chnh xc ca s liu. 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