ࡱ>  5@ <bjbj22 ,zXXM:::::::N6 6 6 8n 4$Nx(vwwwwww$zRV|b%wq:%w::xvvv]::vvvv vv::v 4K6 svvx0xv|v |vNN::::|:v0Hv+%w%wNNd v NN NN KINH T TRI THC KHI NIM, TIU CH PHN NH V NHN DNG PHT TRIN  NC TA TS. Nguyn Trn Qu Vin Kinh T v Chnh Tr Th Gii I. Khi nim Nn kinh t tri thc, cn gi l kinh t da vo tri thc (KBE - Knowledge - Based Economy) l nn kinh t ch yu da vo tri thc, trn c s pht trin khoa hc v cng ngh cao. OECD (T chc hp tc v pht trin kinh t) dch ngh)a: "Nn kinh t tri thc l nn kinh t ngy cng ph thuc trc tip vo vic sn xut phn phi v s dng tri thc v thng tin" (OECD 1996) Din n hp tc kinh t Chu - Thi Bnh Dng (APEC) nh ngh)a: "Nn kinh t tri thc l nn kinh t m trong  qu trnh sn xut, phn phi v s dng tri thc tr thnh ng lc chnh cho tng trng, cho qu trnh to ra ca ci v vic lm trong tt c cc ngnh kinh t (APEC 2000). Ngn hng Th gii (WB, 2000) nh gi "i vi cc nn kinh t tin phong trong nn kinh t Th gii, cn cn gia hai yu t tri thc v cc ngun lc ang nghing v tri thc. Tri thc thc s  tr thnh yu t quan trng nht quyt nh mc sng - hn c yu t t ai, hn c yu t t liu sn xut, hn c yu t lao ng. Cc nn kinh t pht trin nht v cng ngh ngy nay thc s  da vo tri thc". Trong vi nm gn y, ni ln mt s cng nhn rng ri v vai tr ngy cng tng ca tri thc trong cc quy trnh sn xut v s chuyn bin ca cc nn kinh t cng nghip thnh nn kinh t da trn c s tri thc (KBE). Trong KBE, kh nng sng to v s dng tri thc l iu quyt nh cho s thnh cng ca tt c cc l)nh vc, trong  c c cc ngnh "Cng ngh cao" v cc ngnh truyn thng. Mt s pht trin mi c lin quan mt thit vi xu th pht trin nn kinh t tri thc,  l xu th ang ni ln hin nay trong s cc nn kinh t thnh vin APEC  hng ti nn kinh t mi (New Economy). Trong hu ht cc nm gn y cc nn kinh t APEC pht trin nht, t nhiu thnh tch cao nht v tng trng mnh m, vi t l tht nghip v mc lm pht thp, n nh. Mt yu t then cht trong thnh tch ng ghi nhn  l s gia tng nhanh tc  tng nng sut lao ng v nng sut cc nhn t tng hp - Total Factor Productivity- TFP). V d nh  M, vic t c thnh tch tng nng sut lao ng mnh m chnh mt phn l nh vo vic tng ngun vn v c bit l ngun vn cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng. Bn cnh , vai tr ca cng ngh thng tin v mng Intemet tng ln nhanh chng  dn n s xut hin ca u t t bn v hnh, trong  c s sng to ra cc sn phm v dch v mi, thit k li cng tc qun l v cc quy trnh sn xut. V khi nim, thut ng "Nn kinh t mi" c xc nh theo cc quan im khc nhau. Trong khi mt s nh phn tch cho rng khi nim ny ng ngh)a vi khi nim nn kinh t tri thc, th mt s cng trnh nghin cu khc cho thy rng thut ng "Nn kinh t mi" lin quan trc tip hn n s tng trng bn vng v phi lm pht vi mc  u t cao hn vo cng ngh thng tin truyn thng (ICT) v ti c cu li nn kinh t, nh chng ta  tng chng kin  M vo cui nhng nm 90. Nn kinh t mi ch trng vo tng vai tr ring ca ICT v vo s ti c cu trong tng nng sut ca tng yu t trong khi KBE nhn mnh n tm quan trng ngy cng tng ca tri thc trong mi hot ng kinh t. T nm 2000, U ban kinh t (EC) ca APEC  tin hnh thc hin cc nghin cu nh gi v nn kinh t tri thc v xu th ang ni ln hin nay v s pht trin ca nn kinh t mi ti cc quc gia thuc APEC, trong  phn tch cc c tnh ca KBE theo 4 kha cnh then cht: mi trng kinh doanh, h thng i mi, pht trin ngun nhn lc (HRD) v c s h tng ICT. Nhn thy rng, s tng trng kinh t s tr nn bn vng nht i vi cc nn kinh t pht trin theo hng KBE, cc nghin cu ca EC  tin hnh nh gi v phm vi, m trong  c th p dng cc c tnh ca KBE cho cc nn kinh t APEC v tin hnh xem xt k lng mi trng chnh sch m cc nn kinh t APEC  v nn tun theo nhm t c nng sut lao ng cao hn ca mt "kiu mu nn kinh t mi". EC  tin hnh nghin cu 16 trng hp in hnh, trong s 12 nn kinh t APEC  pht hin ra nhng bng chng kinh t v) m v vi m minh ho v nhng ch li v nhng thch thc ny sinh trong khi theo ui cc chnh sch c cu, m nu thiu s p dng cc chnh sch ny trong cc l)nh vc nh ICT, vn con ngi, i mi v tinh thn kinh doanh, th s khng mang li hiu qu cho vic khch l s chuyn bin cn thit  a cc nn kinh t APEC hng ti ho nhp vo nn kinh t mi ton cu. Bn cnh  cc nghin cu ca EC cing xem xt kh nng hp tc cht ch hn trong khi APEC  gip cc nc thnh vin pht trin theo hng nn kinh t mi v nn kinh t tri thc. Trong cc nghin cu ca mnh, U ban Kinh t APEC  tin hnh phn tch mt lot cc vn  quan trng lin quan ti cc ng lc thc y tng trng trong nn kinh t mi v coi  l cc kha cnh cn lu trong cc chnh sch quc gia ca cc nc thnh vin APEC  hng ti nn kinh t mi.  l cc vn : Vai tr ca i mi trong ngnh dch v trong nn kinh t mi; s ng gp ca ICT cho s tng nng sut lao ng; cc chng trnh nghin cu v trin khai (R-D) quc gia v ng gp ca R-D i vi tng trng kinh t, cc kinh nghim t chc v cc chin lc kinh doanh; v tm quan trng ca tinh thn kinh doanh trong nn kinh t mi. Tri thc th hin  cc tng, sng ch, pht minh quy trnh,& trong sn xut v i sng. Trn phng din hnh vi c th quan st c th tri thc l kh nng ca mt c nhn hay mt nhm ngi trong vic hng dn, thuyt phc nhng ngi khc thc hin mt quy trnh to ra s chuyn ho. Trn phng din kinh t, tri thc l t liu sn xut. N c sinh ra, trao i v s dng sn xut  to ra sn phm v dch v. Tri thc phi c nh gi, c gi tr v c mua bn trn th trng. o lng v nh gi tri thc l mt vic kh. V n l sn phm v hnh, tru tng, chuyn ti bng thng tin (v vy, c ngi quan nim nn kinh t tri thc l nn kinh t thng tin) v trong kinh t th trng, gi c phi c hnh thnh v xc nh thng qua th trng, qua tho thun gia ngi mua v ngi bn. Mun th, tri thc phi xc nh c s hu v gi tr c m bo trong x hi thc thi nghim ngt s hu tr tu. Nh vy, x hi c t chc qun l cao theo phng thc th trng, c bit l th trng khoa hc cng ngh l mt ct tr ca kinh t tri thc. Tri thc c c khi con ngi rt ra kinh nghim trong sn xut v i sng, hc hi ngi khc v t hot ng nghin cu, trin khai khoa hc cng ngh. V vy, mt ct tr na ca nn kinh t tri thc l ngun nhn lc vi cht lng cao. Tri thc i vo sn xut ch yu qua cng ngh cao. Cng ngh cao va l kt tinh ca tri thc, va l cng c, phng tin ca tri thc tc ng vo kinh t v i sng nhn dn. V vy, ngi ta cho rng cng ngh cao l ct li ca nn kinh t tri thc. Chng ta c th coi cng ngh cao l mt ct tr ca nn kinh t tri thc. Mt ct tr na ca nn kinh t tri thc l mng li c s h tng pht trin, c bit l mng Bu chnh vin thng, Intemet. Nh vy, nn kinh t tri thc c 4 ct tr l Cng ngh cao, nhn lc cht lng cao, c s h tng kinh t v th trng. Trong mt x hi, mt quc gia, nn kinh t tri thc tn ti song song vi kinh t nng nghip, cng nghip, dch v v c khi chng kt hp, trn ln vi nhau trong mt sn phm. Nn kinh t M, c ngi nh gi l 20% thuc kinh t tri thc, nng nghip ch cn 1,3%, l quc gia dn u th gii hin nay v nn kinh t tri thc. X hi loi ngi v phng din kinh t i t trng trt, chn nui ln tiu th cng nghip, cng nghip i c kh v nay bt u chuyn sang kinh t tri thc. Cng ty Microsoft l cng ty in hnh v nn kinh t tri thc. Nn kinh t tri thc c phn nh, o lng, nh lng bng thng k nh th no; y l vn  mi t ra cho cc nh kinh t, c bit l cc nh thng k. II. Tiu ch phn nh nn kinh t tri thc 1. Vn  tnh gi tr tng thm v gi tr sn xut ca nn kinh t tri thc. Vn  mu cht l vch ra khi nim sn phm ca nn kinh t tri thc. Sn phm c hm lng cht xm cao l sn phm ca nn kinh t tri thc. Nhng hm lng cao l bao nhiu v cht xm o bng g? Cng nghip phn mm m sn phm l cc chng trnh my tnh c gi tr gia tng thng trn 80% c coi l b phn cu thnh ca nn kinh t tri thc. Tuy nhin, nhng sn phm (vt cht v dch v) c gi tr tng thm trn 50% nhng c to ra bi i ngi lao ng cao cp, cht lng cao (i hc tr ln) l sn phm ca nn kinh t tri thc. Sn phm ca R - D c th c coi l sn phm ca nn kinh t tri thc. Nh vy, tng khi lng gi tr thc hin (trao i mua bn) trn th trng khoa hc Cng ngh c th tnh vo tng gi tr sn xut ca nn kinh t tri thc. Cc khu Cng ngh cao to ra cc sng ch, pht minh v sn phm c hm lng cht xm cao c th coi l thuc khu vc kinh t tri thc. Gi tr tng thm ca cc khu Cng ngh cao c tnh trong GDP ca khu vc kinh t tri thc. Cc doanh nghip no thuc v khu vc kinh t tri thc? C th iu tra  lp danh sch cc doanh nghip ny, tnh gi tr tng thm ca h trong nm, tng hp ring  tnh GDP ca khu vc nn kinh t tri thc trong nm. Cc doanh nghip a ngnh, a l)nh vc c th iu tra  xc nh t l gi tr sn xut thuc nn kinh t tri thc trong gi tr sn xut ca h  t  tnh ra t l v khi lng gi tr tng thm ng gp ca h vo khu vc nn kinh t tri thc. 2. 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Cc khon chi tr trc tip hoc tin bn quyn  mua cng ngh trong ton nn kinh t - T l chi tiu cho R - D khu vc doanh nghip. - Tng s lao ng tham gia vo hot ng R - D. - S lng cc t chc khoa hc v Cng ngh, R - D. - Tng s ngi tip cn Internet. - T l tng trng thu bao in thoi v s in thoi thu bao tnh cho 1000 dn. - Cc ch tiu phn nh s pht trin th trng khoa hc cng ngh. - Cc ch tiu phn nh s hnh thnh v pht trin thng mi in t. - Cc ch tiu o to ngun nhn lc cht lng cao, trong  o to cng ngh thng tin. - Doanh s ca ngnh cng ngh thng tin, cng nghip phn mm v t l tng trng ca chng qua cc nm. III. Nhn dng nn kinh t tri thc  nc ta Trong bi cnh chung ton cu ca nhng chuyn dch mang tnh c cu nh cuc cch mng cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng, nhng tin b nhanh chng v vt bc ca khoa hc - cng ngh, ln sng ton cu ho kinh t dng mnh thc y cnh tranh trn quy m ton cu, nhng thay i trong nn kinh t vn ho, li sng v th yu ca ngi tiu dng khi thu nhp tng ln, cc quc gia ang chun b cho mnh khung chnh sch  thch ng vi bi cnh mi . Phn tch chin lc iu chnh thc t ca cc quc gia, chng ta thy cc u tin chnh sch chung sau: xy dng mt mng vin thng pht trin, cc ph r v hiu qu; tng nng sut thng qua cc ngnh kinh doanh c hm lng thng tin v gi tr tng thm cao; tng tnh cnh tranh ca khu vc cng nghip v thng mi; h tr khu vc dch v thng tin; u t tp trung cho gio dc v o to (c bit l gio dc k thut) kt hp vi cc chng trnh hc tp sut i v nng cao k nng; nng cao mt bng dn tri, ngi dn c thng tin tt v tham gia su rng hn vo nn dn ch, cc chin lc ng h v bo tn cc gi tr vn ho. Ngy nay, cc nc i sau hon ton c th gt hi nhng c may ca ln sng cng ngh mi. H hon ton c kh nng bt kp nhanh chng cc nc i trc bi chnh tnh u vit ca ln sng cng ngh mi hin nay. L nc i sau, h khng cn phi pht minh li nhng g sn c. Nhim v chnh ca cc nc i sau l m ca tri thc v tng t cc nc i trc. Vn  t ra  y l: Sn xut ra cng ngh mi l rt quan trng song i vi v th ca mt nc i sau nng lc "bt chc" v hp th cng ngh l iu sng cn. Chnh v vy, hai chnh sch m ca th trng v u t cho gio dc phi l hai tr ct ca khung chnh sch cho cc nc ang pht trin n bt xu th kinh t tri thc. M ca th trng gip y nhanh qu trnh chuyn giao tri thc cn gio dc s gip nng cao nng lc hp th tri thc ca mt quc gia. Nh vy, trong thi i kinh t tri thc, li th so snh ca nc i sau nm trong kh nng ng dng cng ngh ngun t cc nc i trc ch khng phi l kh nng pht minh ra cc cng ngh . i vi nc ta, chnh sch cha hng mnh sang hnh thnh v pht trin nn kinh t tri thc. - Mi trng chnh sch v) m ca Vit Nam cha khuyn khch cc ngnh cng nghip c hm lng tri thc cao. Vit Nam cha hnh thnh c mt c ch hp tc hiu qu gia gii khoa hc v gii doanh nghip. - Vit Nam cha c mt h thng nh ch ti chnh u t vo cc hot ng nghin cu cng ngh v i mi. Trong nn kinh t tri thc, ngun ti chnh l iu kin tin quyt  bin tng thnh tri thc, thnh cng ngh, do  Vit Nam cn xy dng c cc m hnh qu u t cho hot ng sn sinh ra tri thc, c bit l loi hnh qu u t mo him. - Cc nc i sau ang trng ch vo m hnh khu cng ngh cao hay vn m doanh nghip cng ngh nh l cu cnh trong ln sng cch mng cng ngh hin nay. Vic xy dng thnh cng mt khu cng ngh cao khng ch l vn  h tng c s hay mt vi chnh sch u i ngnh manh mn. Trn th gii c rt nhiu khu cng ngh cao hay cc vn m doanh nghip song thnh cng khng nhiu v tnh ng b ca mi trng th ch, chnh sch cing nh cc iu kin vn ho - x hi cha cao. Yu t quyt nh thnh cng ca mt khu cng ngh cao l mi quan h hp tc gia cc trung tm nghin cu trin khai v doanh nghip, ngun ti chnh u t, mi trng vn ho trong kinh doanh v tnh hiu lc ca qu trnh chuyn giao cng ngh, tri thc& ch khng phi l din tch t rng hay mt vi u i ban u. - Trong thi i kinh t tri thc, li th cnh tranh chuyn t ti nguyn thin nhin, t ai, lao ng nhiu sang tri thc, k nng v tnh sng to. Tt c cc yu t ny ch c th tm thy trong con ngi, do  con ngi tr thnh ti sn qu nht ca x hi, min l to ra ca ci cho x hi . Cng nhn tri thc, v th, tr thnh yu t sn xut hng u quyt nh sc cnh tranh ca mi quc gia (The Economist 2001). t nc no thu ht c nhiu cng nhn tri thc s dn u trong qu trnh chuyn dch sang nn kinh t tri thc.  y, chnh sch nhp c ng vai tr quyt nh. i vi Vit Nam, gi c "cht xm"  kh, thu ht c "cht xm" th gii cn kh gp bi. Nu lm c iu ny, Vit Nam s rt ngn ng k qu trnh Cng nghip ho, Hin i ho nn kinh t, tip cn nhanh hn vo nn kinh t tri thc. - Tng cng cng tc bo h quyn tc gi v pht trin nhanh cc ngnh kinh t da vo quyn tc gi. Vit Nam  tham gia Cng c Bern v quyn tc gi t ngy 26-10-2004. Tuy nhin, vn  l phi thc thi c hiu lc, hiu qu lm c s pht trin cc ngnh da vo tri thc. Ch ring ti M, cc ngnh cng nghip da trn quyn tc gi  to ra hn 460 t  la vo GDP v xut khu ti 80 t  la mi nm. Trong nn kinh t tri thc ton cu cc ngnh cng nghip da trn quyn tc gi khng nhng ng gp phn quan trng vo tng thu nhp quc dn m cn cung cp "nguyn liu tr tu, u vo cho khoa hc, gio dc, truyn b kin thc, thc y tin b x hi. Thng qua h tr sng to, cc ngnh ny thc y sn xut gia tng mnh m v to ra nhiu vic lm. Quyn tc gi  ni ln nh mt phng tin quan trng nht  iu chnh th trng cc sn phm tr tu trn phm vi quc t. Quyn tc gi kch thch s sng to, to ra kh nng thc y pht trin vn ho v kinh t tri thc ti cc nc ang pht trin. Quyn tc gi khng ch mang li s giu c cho nhng c nhn ti nng ti cc nc ang pht trin, ng gp ngun thu nhp nhiu hn cho nn kinh t t nc m trong mt s trng hp, nh tham gia cc cng c quc t v quyn tc gi, nhiu nc ang pht trin  gt hi c nhng thnh cng ng knh n, m tiu biu l ngnh cng nghip phn mm ca n . T nm 1995 n 2002, thu nhp ca ngnh ny  tng t 787 triu  la ln 10,2 t  la, trong  xut khu phn mm tng t 489 triu  la ln 7,8 t  la v mang li vic lm cho khong 520.000 ngi. Quyn tc gi mang li c hi pht trin lnh mnh v nng cao kh nng cnh tranh quc t ca cc ngnh cng nghip da trn quyn tc gi. Ti cc nc ang pht trin, vic bo h quyn tc gi ti th trng trong nc s to ra c may  cc nh kinh doanh pht huy ti nng nhm pht trin lnh mnh cc ngnh cng nghip da trn quyn tc gi, nh cc ngnh xut bn, in nh, m nhc v cng nghip phn mm c a v quan trng trong nn kinh t tri thc. Vic bo h quyn tc gi c th gip kch thch pht trin v nng cao kh nng cnh tranh quc t ca cc ngnh cng nghip da trn c s quyn tc gi ti cc nc ang pht trin. Ngy nay, trong bi cnh cnh tranh quyt lit ca nn kinh t tri thc ton cu, nm gi s hu quyn tc gi s c c u th ng k  cnh tranh v pht trin.  nhn c cc li ch ti a t quyn tc gi, cc nc ang pht trin cn p ng cc yu cu quan trng sau: Th nht, phi hon thin h thng php lut v quyn tc gi. Th hai, cn nhanh chng xy dng, pht trin c s h tng ca cc ngnh cng nghip da trn c s quyn tc gi. Cc t chc quc t nh T chc S hu tri tu th gii (WIPO), T chc Vn ho khoa hc v gio dc Lin Hp Quc (UNESCO) cng Ngn hng th gii (WB) u cho rng,  nhn c li ch ti a t vic khai thc thng mi cc sn phm tr tu, iu quan trng l cc nc ang pht trin cn xy dng, hon thin c s h tng cc ngnh cng nghip da trn quyn tc gi. Nu cc iu kin ny c p ng, cc nc ang pht trin s nhn c nhiu li ch hn t quyn tc gi. Chng hn nu c c s vt cht hin i cho hot ng xut bn v ghi bng )a th cc cng ty ti cc nc ang pht trin s d dng tham gia cnh tranh v vn ra th trng quc t( Ti liu tham kho - OECD (1996): "The Knowledge-based Economy , OECD, pari. - OECD (1999): "Toward Knowledge-based economy: Facts and Figures , OECD, paris. - OECD (2001): "The New Economy: Beyond the Hype , OECD, Paris. - World Bank (1999): "Knowledge for Development , World Development Report. - APEC (2000): "Toward the Knowledge-based Economy. - APEC (2001): "The New Economy in APEC - Joseph E. Stiglitz (1998): "Towards a New Paradigm for Development: Strategies, Pohcies, and Processes, Raul Prebisch Lecture at UNCTAD, Geneva. - Joseph E. Stiglitz (1999): "Public Policy for a Knowledge Economy , Centerfor Econo-micpolicy Research(cepr), DTI, london, UK. - John Houston & Peter Sheehan (2000): "A Pnmary on the Kowledge Economy , Center for Strategic Economic Studies (CSES), Victoria University, Australia. - Lester Thurow (2000): "Creating Wealth , Nicholas Brealey Pubhshing, - Ng Quang, Tng (2000): "Xu th kinh t tri thc , NXB Chnh tr quc gia, H Ni. - Damel Cohen v Michle Debonneuil (2001): "Nn kinh t mi, chng trnh Din n kinh t vit-php, NXB Chnh tr quc gia, H Ni.  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