ࡱ> ^`]5@ Dbjbj22 ,FXX :::::::N8  NKb\K^K^K^K^K^K^K'MRyO^K!:^K::KKKK4E::\KK\KK K K:: K 0d CFJ KHKK0K KPJ P KNN::::P: K(K^K^KNNJ NNNHNG THCH THC KHI THIT K H THNG NG DNG K THUT TIN HC CN TRNH Hong Minh Thin Ngy 1/12/2004 ngnh Thng k t chc mt hi ngh nhm tng bc thit lp mt h thng ng dng k thut tin hc trn ton ngnh, y qu l mt du hiu ng mng v  lu l)nh vc ny khng c quan tm ng mc. Bi vit ny chng ti mong ng gp my kin kinh nghim cho cc nh qun l khi bt tay vo cng vic kh khn ny. Khi xc nh h thng ng dng k thut tin hc (UDKTTH) thng trong ngh) cc nh qun l lun lun mong mi nhng iu kin ti u v v th thng sai lch so vi thc tin v chng ti gi nhng mong mi ny l cc thch thc; sau y s l nhng thch thc thng gp nht. 1. Thch thc v s ng b my mc v thit b tin hc cing nh s n nh lu di ca chng. Thc t cho thy my mc v thit b hin c ca chng ta  c mua sm qua nhiu thi k, bng nhiu ngun kinh ph khc nhau v khc nhau theo c v tr a l; v th chng ta ang c rt nhiu chng loi my tnh, cc thit b tin hc khc v khi a chng vo h thng th chc chn khng th n nhp c tt c. V th trc khi thit lp h thng cn t ra cu hi: nhng g chng ta ang c v nhng g s b i, nhng g c a vo h thng trong tng lai. Tng t nh th vi cc sn phm phn mm ng dng trong ngnh, trn cc a phng vn lu nay khng c qun l thng nht v ng dng t pht th kh nng trao i, lin kt trong h thng cing rt kh khn (ch cn chng ta lin tng n tranh ci trc y v b ch Vit l c th thy mc  phc tp nh th no ca vn  ny). Thm na, theo thi gian, my mc thit b tin hc lc hu nhanh chng v cc sn phm phn mm ng dng k thut tin hc cing c ci bin lin tc; cho nn my mc, thit b tin hc s thng xuyn phi thay th v cc sn phm phn mm cing s thng xuyn c nng cp. Chng ta  phi tr gi cho nhng sai lm nh vy trong qu kh khi khng tnh trc kh nng thit b lu tr lc hu b thay th v thit b mi khng th khi phc thng tin trn thit b ci, dn n rt nhiu kt qu iu tra, lu tr  mt. Tnh ton cho mt k hoch lu di phi tnh n s khng n nh ca k thut v nh th cing ng ngh)a vi vic phi tnh trc mt k hoch thay th my mc v cp nht cc sn phm phn mm ng dng theo kp vi tin b ca ngnh ny. 2. Thch thc v mt i ngi cn b UDKTTH ng u v nng lc. i ngi cn b UDKTTH ng vai tr quan trng cho mt h thng hot ng c hiu qu, song trn thc tin chng ta ang c mt i ngi chp v c o to t nhiu ngun khc nhau, vi cc gio trnh khng chun nh nhau v theo mt thi gian ko di  nhiu nm; dn n cht lng i ngi rt khc nhau. Cng ngi trc mt Terminal ca h thng nhng li c nhng UDKTTH khc nhau  l iu phi tnh k cho h thng hot ng hu hiu v thng sut. R rng mt chng trnh chun ho kin thc cho cn b UDKTTH trong ton ngnh phi c tnh n  x l ca cn b UDKTTH trc cng mt tnh hung ca h thng l c bn nh nhau. Thm na, chng trnh cn c cp nht st vi cc tin b ca ngnh tin hc trong nc v th gii. Trong vn  ny c hai l)nh vc cn phn bit  l: o to cho cn b chuyn v k thut tin hc v o to cho cn b nghip thng k v k thut tin hc; r rng hai i tng ny cn trang b cc kin thc khc nhau v li rt gn nhau  s phi hp tr nn thun li. Lu nay pht trin UDKTTH H \ f j BP$*,F-2>3<<DDDDDDƴplhlhnhh%8" j<hJhJCJOJQJaJU"hJhJ56CJOJQJaJhJhJCJOJQJaJhJ5CJOJQJ^JaJ#hJhJ5CJOJQJ^JaJhJ5CJOJQJaJhJhJCJOJQJaJ$hJ5CJOJQJaJhJhJ5CJOJQJaJNj  BP,2<?DDDD!!$! !!!!gdJ$x7$8$`a$gdJ $x`a$gdJ $x`a$gdJ$d`a$gdJ $a$gdJ$a$gdJDDthng gp kh khn  ch khng hiu nhau ca hai i ngi ny khin cho cc kt qu hn ch rt nhiu, khng thm nhp su cc vn  nghip v thng k v khng p dng tt cc k thut tin hc (c bit l xy dng cc c s d liu). Thay i tnh trng hin nay khng g quan trng hn l xy dng mt chin lc o to lu di v thc tin. 3. Thch thc v mt ngun kinh ph v hn tim tng v n nh lu di. Trong bi cnh nc ta ang cn u t cho cc mc tiu pht trin kinh t x hi th mt ngun kinh ph m bo cho mi yu cu thit k h thng l khng c v khng thc tin, cng vi yu cu kinh ph hot ng thng xuyn cn c cho h thng th  l nhng yu t ch cht tc ng n thit k h thng hp l v tit kim. Trc y nhng nm 70 - 80 chng ta  tng c nhng k hoch rm r vi ngun kinh ph tng nh v hn cho cc k hoch , nhng thc tin  tht bi v hiu qu s dng ngun kinh ph  rt thp; v th cn c mt cch tip cn thc t hn khi a ra cc bc pht trin h thng trn c s kinh ph c kh nng huy ng v theo l trnh thi gian hp l. 4. Thch thc v s tn ti ca cc chun mc k thut v nghip v. Khi bt tay vo thit lp mt h thng UDKTTH nhiu ngi tin tng rng  c mt h thng cc chun mc chung v k thut v nghip v v ch cn ch my mc thit b, con ngi l h thng s hot ng thng sut; thc t th phn thit k logic ca h thng lun lun l phn kh khn hn c v n phi i mt vi nhng thi quen  lu ngy v  tng mang li thnh cng cho cn b UDKTTH lu nay. Cng vi cc chun mc chung ca h thng chng ta cing cn phi thit lp cc quy nh hot ng (tng t nh hnh lang php l trong cuc sng)  h thng hot ng hng theo mc tiu ng n. Nh vy, thit k h thng UDKTTH khng ch tc ng n ring b phn no m n tc ng n tt c cc b phn trong ngnh; nghip v thng k l ni cn thay i mnh m nht  thng tin thng k chun ho cho UDKTTH; h thng thu thp thng tin, h thng bo co, cc cuc iu tra, nhu cu lu tr,& u cn chun mc ho nu khng d c bao thit b tin hc th tnh hnh cing khng xoay chuyn bao nhiu. Tt nhin khng th mt lc lm tt c nhng k hoch chun ho cing nn c a ra ph hp vi qu trnh thit lp h thng nh mua my mc, kinh ph, o to nhn lc,... 5. Thch thc v s an ton h thng. D c thit k tt n u h thng UDKTTH lun phi i mt vi nhng vn  b ph hu hoc khng kim sot c; v th h thng phi tnh n kh nng an ton trong hot ng. Cc vn  hng ngy nh chy n, mt in b phn, hacker, virus, khng khi phc c thng tin lu tr... l thng xuyn xy ra v th khng tnh n trong thit k ngay t u l sai lm kh khc phc sau ny. 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