ࡱ> 5@ bjbj22 ,XXY3dddddddx@H@H@H8xHLHtxbDJDJDJDJDJDJDJDJ$RXEdLDJDJLLddDJDJ^]]]L]dDJdDJ]L]F]ddDJ8J 0ɁK@H2߭t0ݬvxxddddd<DJJ|]nKdKDJDJDJxx#&$"S xx&TNH HNH KHAI THC V S DNG CC LOI TI NGUYN Vi c Khnh 1. Khai thc v s dng ti nguyn t Trong thi gian t 1985 n 2000, din tch t nng nghip tng t gn 7 triu ha ln hn 9 triu ha (t 21% ln 28% din tch t t nhin). Din tch t nng nghip tng thm ch yu thuc cc vng Ty Nguyn, ng Nam B v ng bng sng Cu Long. Din tch t lm nghip tng t hn 9 triu ha nm 1985 ln gn 11 triu ha nm 2000 (trong  t rng t nhin 9 triu 440 nghn ha, t rng trng 1,5 triu). ng ch din tch t c rng ch tng mnh t sau nhng nm nh nc ban hnh Lut t ai v Lut bo v mi trng. Din tch t chuyn dng tng t 972 nghn ha nm 1990 ln 1,5 triu ha nm 2000, din tch t chuyn dng tng  tt c cc vng trong c nc cho mc ch xy dng c s h tng giao thng, thy li, khu cng nghip. Din tch t chuyn dng tng thm  gp phn lm gim tc d tng din tch t nng nghip (xem biu 1). Mt iu quan trng trong nhng nm qua din tch t cha s dng c nc  gim mnh, t hn 14 triu ha nm 1985  gim xung cn 10 triu ha nm 2000. H s s dng t cy trng hng nm tng ln (t 1,4 nm 1995 tng ln 1,6 nm 2000). Trong c cu din tch t chuyn la, din tch la 2 n 3 v tng do y mnh cng tc thy li, tin b k thut v thm canh, tng v v a dng ho ging la. Sn xut nng nghip  dn bin chuyn theo hng bn vng, biu hin qua vic tng din tch cy lu nm c hiu qu kinh t cao, gim din tch cc loi cy hng nm trng thun trn t dc. Tuy nhin, trong c cu s dng t nng nghip t l din tch cy hng nm vn cn chim trn 60%, mt khc kh tng din tch t canh tc t din tch t cha s dng s kh khn trong thi gian ti, v phn ln din tch t ny thuc vng ni cao, him tr, vng su vng xa chi ph tn km v hiu qu thp. Biu 1. Din bin s dng ti nguyn t 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 n v: 1000 ha 1985199019952000t nng nghip 6942699373679345Trong :- t cy hng nm5615533854035607- t cy lu nm804104514182182t lm nghip964193951079511580t chuyn dng& 97212711533t cha s dng14827149251284310022 Ngun s liu: Nghin cu qun l v pht trin ti nguyn sinh vt trong mt s h sinh thi tiu biu  Vit Nam,  ti KT 02.08,. 2. Khai thc v s dng ti nguyn rng Biu 2. Din tch rng trng tp trung 1990-2000 NmDin tch (1000 ha)Ch s pht trin (Nm trc 100%)1990100,3120,51991123,9123,51992122,899,11993128,2104,41994158,1123,31995209,6132,61996202,996,81997221,8109,31998208,694,01999230,1110,32000232,3101,0Ngun s liu: Tnh hnh kinh t - x hi Vit Nam 1991-2000 Thnh qu ln nht trong l)nh vc lm nghip t c trong nhng nm va qua l vn rng c gi vng v pht trin. Tng din tch rng theo kim k cng b nm 2000 t 10,9 triu ha, tng 1,8 triu ha so vi nm 1990, t l che ph rng  tng t 27,7% nm 1990 ln 32,2% nm 2000 v 35,8% nm 2002. S d) t c kt qu nh vy, mt mt do cng tc trng rng mi, khoanh nui rng, ti sinh rng c ch trng. Mt khc, ch trng ng ca rng, bo v rng v pht trin vn rng  c thc hin nghim tc trn c nc. Thc hin ch trng ny ca Nh nc, phn ln cc n v lm trng quc doanh, cc h gia nh  chuyn t khai thc rng sang nhim v trng, bo v rng v lm dch v lm nghip. Nhim v khai thc g gim n mc ti a, cng tc trng rng pht trin. T nm 1990 n nm 2000 c nc  trng c 1.939 nghn ha rng tp trung, bnh qun mi nm trng c 176 nghn ha. Trong  giai on 1990-1995 trng c 743 nghn ha, bnh qun mi nm 149 nghn ha; giai on 1996-2000 trng 1.096 nghn ha, mi nm trng 219 nghn ha (xem biu 2). Gi tr sn xut lm nghip t nm 1991-2000 tng bnh qun mi nm 1,2%. Tuy tng chm hn so vi cc hot ng kinh t khc nhng c cu gi tr sn lng ngnh lm nghip nhng nm qua  bin i theo chiu hng tch cc. Gi tr sn xut do hot ng trng rng, khoanh nui, ti sinh v bo v rng ngy cng ln. Gi tr lm sn khai thc t rng trng cing  tng dn trong mt s nm gn y. Trong khong 10 nm (1990-2000) sn lng g khai thc nc ta t 29,6 triu m3, bnh qun mi nm khai thc 2,68 triu m3. Do ch trng ng ca rng  hn ch c tnh trng cht ph rng nn sn lng ci khai thc nhng nm gn y  gim t 32 triu ste nm 1990 xung cn 24 triu ste nm 2000. Vic khai thc g, ci phc v cho nhu cu thit yu nh: nguyn liu giy, g tr m (xem biu 3). Biu 3. Sn lng g khai thc 1990 - 2000 NmSn lng g (1000 tn)Ch s pht trin (Nm trc 100%)19903445,5105,619913209,693,219922686,583,719932883,6107,319942853,298,919952793,197,919962833,5101,419972480,087,519982216,889,419992122,595,720002050,096,6Ngun s liu: Tnh hnh kinh t  x hi Vit Nam 1991-2000 3. Khai thc v s dng ti nguyn nc Ti nguyn nc  nc ta c s dng ch yu phc v sn xut nng nghip, ng nghip, cp nc cho sinh hot v thu in cn cc nhu cu khc s dng cha nhiu: 3.1. Ti nguyn nc s dng cho nng nghip Bao gm nc ti cho hn 9 triu ha t nng nghip, cho chn nui v nui trng thy sn. Hin nay, c nc c khong 80 h thng thy nng ln, va v nh; 700 h p ln v va, 3.500 h p nh, 1.000 cng ti tiu v 2000 trm bm loi ln. Cc cng trnh thy li ch yu khai thc ti nguyn nc mt.  m bo n nh v tng sn lng lng thc bnh qun u ngi, cng vi vic tng din tch t canh tc, din tch gieo trng, thm canh, tng v, tng nng sut th thu li cing l mt bin php quan trng u tin. D tnh n nm 2010 din tch t trng la nc ta s t 6,2 triu ha (tng 14% so vi nm 1990) nhu cu nc tng ng s tng 72% (khong 370 t m3). Trong chn nui gia sc gia cm nhu cu nc ung cho ng vt, nc v sinh chung tri l rt ln. D kin n nm 2010 nhu cu nc s dng cho chn nui cing s tng khong 4 n 5 ln so vi nm 1990. Thy sn nc ngt l mt ngun li ln ca nc ta. Hin nay c nc c trn 500 nghn ha mt nc, h cha s dng cho nui trng thy sn. Lng nc s dng cho vic nui th, thau ra ao h mi nm d tnh khong 40.000 m3 trn 1 ha. Tim nng pht trin thy sn nc ngt ca nc ta l rt ln, hin nay mi ch s dng ht khong 50%. 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Ti nguyn nc s dng sn xut in Nc ta c tim nng thy in di do, vi hn 2.000 sng sui ln, nh phn b trn khp lnh th. Tng tim nng l thuyt ngun thy in nc ta khong 308 t Kwh. Tr nng k thut thu in trn ton lnh th Vit Nam l 72 t Kwh vi cng sut t 10 MW tr ln, c khong 360 v tr lp t my, tng cng sut 17.500 MW. Ngoi ra cha k n tim nng thy in nh. Hin nay sn lng in do thy in pht hng nm khong 23,8 Kwh chim 51% tng sn lng in pht ra ca c nc. Hin nay nc ta c nhng nh my thy in ln v va: Thc B, Ho Bnh, Tr An, a Nhim, Thc M, V)nh Sn, Yali, a Mi, i Ninh v Sng Hinh, vi tng cng sut 18,62 t Kwh cp vo li in quc gia. Ngoi ra cn 13 cng trnh ang lp bo co kh thi  a vo xy dng trong nhng nm sp ti vi cng sut l 6.229 MW v tng lng in pht l 27,6 t KWh; 6 cng trnh  xut nghin cu vi cng sut l 1.258 MW v tng lng in pht l 5,54 t KWh; cc trm thu in nh vi cng sut l 1.000 MW v tng lng in pht l 2 t KWh. 3.3. Ti nguyn nc s dng cung cp cho sn xut cng nghip v dn c S dng nc cho sinh hot c xem xt  hai khu vc l thnh th v nng thn. Nc ta c khong hn 600  th cc loi v gn 100 khu cng nghip tp trung vi dn s khong 19 triu 900 nghn ngi, chim 25% dn s c nc (nm 2002). T l dn s thnh th c s dng nc sch cn thp mi ch t khong di 70%. Nm 1998, tng lu lng cp nc ca 190 nh my l 2,6 triu m3 ngy, trong  nc ngm khong 30%. nh hng cp nc  th ca B Xy dng d kin n nm 2010 l 8,8 triu m3 ngy, n nm 2020 l 15,94 triu m3 ngy. Hin nay, tiu chun nh lng nc cp cho dn s  th cn thp (t 40-50 lt /ngi/ngy), lng nc my b tht thot cn ln (60-70%) do h thng h tng cp nc xy dng t lu, chp v, xung cp nghim trng v qun l km.  khu vc nng thn, ni c khong 75% dn s c nc sinh sng. Trong s  mi ch c 42% dn s c s dng nc sch cho sinh hot, s cn li phi s dng nhng ngun nc h, ao, sng, sui,& khng m bo v sinh. Mt khc, do s phn b khng u gia cc ma trong nm, gia cc vng a l nn tnh trng khan him nc cc b vn xy ra  mt s thnh ph ln,  cc tnh min ni pha Bc, min Trung v Ty Nguyn vo cc thng ma kh. 4. Khai thc v s dng ti nguyn khng ti to c 4.1. Khai thc khong sn Biu 4. Sn lng mt s sn phm ch yu ngnh cng nghip khai thc m 1990 - 1999 NmThan sch (1000 tn)Du th (1000 tn)Qung crm (1000 tn)Qung Apatit (1000 tn) (1000 m3)19904626,52700,04,6274,05362,019914729,03956,06,0319,04464,019925020,65496,03,6290,05419,519935899,06312,06,9362,07415,019946690,07074,06,3470,08873,019958350,07620,024,5592,010657,019969823,08803,037,3613,012465,0199711388,010090,051,0581,015849,0199811672,012500,059,0599,018020,019999629,015217,058,5681,019172,0 Ngun s liu: Tnh hnh kinh t  x hi Vit Nam 1991-2000 C ch th trng to iu kin thun li cho ngnh cng nghip khai khong pht trin mnh m. Theo s liu ca Tng cc Thng k trong giai on 1990 - 1999 sn lng than khai thc tng gp hn hai ln (nm 2002 c nc t 15,8 triu tn, gp hn 3 ln) so vi nm 1990; du th tng hn 5 ln (nm 2002 t 16,6 triu tn, gp 6 ln) so vi nm 1990. Sn lng cc loi khong sn khc cing tng gp nhiu ln so vi nm 1990 nh: apatt t hn 680 ngn tn, gp 2,5 ln; qung crm t 59 ngn tn, gp 13 ln;  cc loi t 19.172 ngn m3& (xem biu 4). Ngoi ra cn c hng trm m khong sn kim loi nh st, thic, crmit, ng, niken, km, ch, magan, antimon, vonfram, vng& v cc khong sn phi kim loi nh  qu,  vi,  p lt, ct, thy tinh v vt liu xy dng ang c tin hnh u t khai thc. Cng nghip khai thc m pht trin  gp phn quan trng trong vic cung cp  nguyn liu, nhin liu cho hot ng sn xut ca cc ngnh kinh t quc dn, xut khu tng ngun thu ngoi t cho t nc. 4.2. Khai thc v s dng ti nguyn sch Do c im nc ta thuc vng nhit i gi ma, rt di do v tr lng ti nguyn sch nh nng lng gi, nng lng mt tri, nng lng nhit a. u im ca nng lng ny l loi ti nguyn c th ti to v loi nng lng sch, t gy ra nhim mi trng. Tuy nhin, hin nay vic khai thc v s dng cc loi ti nguyn ny mi ang cn trong giai on th nghim. Theo s liu iu tra c bn cho thy tim nng gi  Vit Nam l rt ln, nng lng gi c th tn dng cho mc ch chy tuc bin gi  pht in. Hin nay  c mt s chng trnh hp tc vi nc ngoi  trin khai d n xy dng nh my in chy gi  o Bch Long V) cng sut ln n 1200 KWh v mt s a phng khc cng sut nh hn, ch yu cung cp in sinh hot cho cm dn c vng su in li cha c kh nng vn ti v l do dn c t, c ly xa, chi ph in li cao v km hiu qu. V nng lng mt tri, do nc ta c s gi nng trung bnh nm t 2000-2500 gi vi tng bc x trung bnh khong 100-175 Kcal/cm2/nm v din tch bc x mt tri nc ta khong 300 ngn km2 c th cho ta khi lng nhit nng l thuyt ln n 44 t TOE nm. Hin nay nc ta  c mt s d n ng dng nng lng mt tri cho vic sy nng sn, un nc nng v pht in nhng do gi thnh sn xut pin mt tri cao nn kh nng khai thc cn rt hn ch. 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