ࡱ> }|5@ ~bjbj22 (XXe1PPPPPPPd, , , 8d t d?b a?c?c?c?c?c?c?$\ARC~?-P ?PP ?>>> .P P a?> a?>> ?PP ? P, ; ?-?4?0? ?,D>,D ?ddPPPP,DP ?$ > ??ddh >ddh LNG NGH V THNG K LNG NGH Phm Sn Vin Khoa hc Thng k Trong nhng nm gn y, khi nc ta chuyn i c ch qun l k hoch ho tp trung sang c ch th trng nh hng x hi ch ngh)a, mi l)nh vc hot ng c khi dy v c ng gp tch cc vo mc tng trng ca nn kinh t. Trong dng chy chung  c s pht trin ca hot ng ngnh ngh  khu vc nng thn, ni c gn 80% dn s ang sinh sng. Chnh v s pht trin nhanh v sinh ng ca cc ngnh ngh, nn nhiu cp chnh quyn v qun l c u t nghin cu lng ngh. Tuy nhin do nhiu nguyn nhn khch quan v ch quan khc nhau nn nhiu vn  v phng php lun cha c thng nht dn n ngun s liu mu thun nhau. Chng hn theo s liu ca B Nng nghip v Pht trin Nng thn, s liu lng ngh nm 2001 nhiu gp 3-4 ln s liu cuc Tng iu tra Nng nghip v Nng thn nm 1999 do Tng cc Thng k tin hnh.  gp phn gii quyt nhng vn  bc xc ny sinh trong qu trnh nghin cu lng ngh, trong bi vit ny s tp trung vo cc ni dung sau: I. Khi nim lng ngh Khi nim Lng ngh thng c xut hin kh nhiu trn sch bo a phng v trung ng, nhng cho n nay vn cha c mt nh ngh)a thng nht m  chp nhn nh mt phm tr trong vn ho. Nn chng ta thng gp nhng cu  tnh lng, ngh)a xm ,  sau lu tre lng , hay  trai khn chn v cng lng & Song  nhn dng lng nh vy khng th thng k c. Di y chng ti s trnh by mt s vn  c lin quan n khi nim lng. 1. Lng trong h thng hnh chnh trc y v ngy nay Theo nhiu ti liu lch s  li, h thng hnh chnh ca cc triu i phong kin nc ta gm: - Chnh quyn phong kin trung ng, gi l triu nh, ng u l Vua (cha) v di vua cha c triu i c t tng, c triu i khng v lc b (b binh, b l)nh, b hnh, b h, b cng v b l) - Chnh quyn a phng c tnh (hoc chu). ng u tnh l quan tun ph - Di tnh c ph v huyn. ng u ph c quan tri ph v ng u huyn c quan tri huyn. S d) di tnh c t ra cc ph v do iu kin giao thng vn ti kh khn, nn trong mt tnh chia ra mt s ph, ngi ng u huyn (tri huyn)  a phng c chn gi l tri ph c trch nhim gip tun ph, theo di v gim st mt s ph, cing nh chuyn cng vn giy t t tnh v huyn v ngc li. - Di huyn c cc lng, ng u lng c chc l trng lm chc nng qun l nh nc trong lng (qun l inh, in, thu thu, trt t an ninh). c trng cho mi lng u c nh lng, vi my chc nng sau: + Th cng thn hong lng l ngi c cng xy dng lng hoc ngi c nhiu cng vi nc; + Tr s hnh chnh ca lng - y l ni hi hp xem xt nhng vn  trng i ca lng. c bit y l ni lng xem xt lun ti nhng ngi vi phm l lng (nhiu ni gi l hng c hoc hin nay gi chung l lut c). T chc hi h nh m,& Tu thuc vo quy m ca lng, di lng c th chia ra mt s thn xm.  gip cho tri ph hoc tri huyn qun l i ngi l trng ti tng vng, c thnh lp chc danh chnh tng v nhng lng chu s  gim st ca mt v chnh tng gi l Tng. Nh vy, Tng khng phi l mt n v hnh chnh m ch l mt cp trung gian  tha phi vin ton quyn ca chi ph Theo cun Vit Nam s lc ca hc gi Trn Trng Kim do NXB  Nng n hnh nm 2001, trang 195 c ghi  Trong thi k Minh thuc (1418-1427) php h thip v hong sch nh sau:  Vic iu h  An Nam by gi phi theo nh l bn tu,... vic cai tr trong nc th chia ra lm l v gip.  ch thnh ph gi l phng,  chung quang thnh ph gi l tng,  nh qu gi l l. L li chia ra gip. C 110 h lm mt l v 10 h lm mt gip, l c l trng, gip c gip th,...  .... mt l, mt phng hay mt tng c mt cun sch  bin tt c s inh v in vo y,... khi no cun s y xong ri, th bin ra 4 bn, mt c ba, cho nn gi l hong sch  gi v b H. Php h thip v hong sch c trnh by trn c tn ti  nc ta cho n cui th k XIX. Sau khi thc dn Php xm lc nc ta, b my chnh quyn vn duy tr nh di ch  phong kin. T nm 1945, khi nc ta ginh c lp, theo hin php 1946, 1959, 1980 v c bit l Hin php 1992  qui nh r h thng chnh quyn 4 cp: Trung ng, tnh, huyn, x. Di x t chc thnh cc thn/ xm/ bn hoc phng v  khi nim lng  ch a danh ca mt cm dn c gm nhiu thn/ xm/ bn hp thnh chng hn x Thnh Kinh, Thch H, H T)nh gm 4 lng: Tri l (c 4 xm), Tri nang (3 xm), Thng Nguyn (3 xm), v Chi lu (4 xm). T nhng iu phn tch trn y c th rt ra mt kt lun khi nim  lng l mt phm tr lch s v vn ho c s thay i t thi i ny sang thi i khc. Do vy khi thng k c lin quan n khi nim  lng phi ht sc ch nu khng s gy ra s tranh lun v s liu. 2. Ngh Cng vi trng trt v chn nui, hu ht dn c sng  vng nng thn u c hot ng thm mt s ngh th cng vi mc ch ban u sn xut ra mt s hng gia dng phc v cho nhu cu sn xut v i sng ca h gia nh mang tnh cht t cung t cp trn c s s dng ngun nguyn liu sn c. Nhng qua mt qu trnh di pht trin do c s khc nhau v tay ngh v kinh nghim tch lu c  tng a phng nht nh  c s chuyn mn ho v cc sn phm lm ra bt u a ra th trng trao i nh nhng loi hng ho.  l qu trnh chuyn mn ho lu i v cc sn phm ca a phng  khng nhng bn p m c gi thnh r nn c x hi chp nhn. Chng hn qu la H Ty c lng la Vn Phc ni ting c trong v ngoi nc, hoc ngh rn  a S& v H Ty ni c nhiu lng ngh ni ting nn c thin h t tn l  t ca trm ngh . Khng ring H Ty m hu ht cc a phng trn c nc  lng qu no ngoi sn xut nng nghip u c lm thm mt vi ngh ph. Song vn  quan tm  y l nhng hot ng ngnh ngh no c gi l ngh. Theo quan im chung, cc hot ng sn xut tiu th cng nghip  a phng no  c gi l ngh khi no phi to ra c mt khi lng sn phm chim l)nh th trng thng xuyn v nhng ngi sn xut, hoc h sn xut  ly ngh ang hnh lm ngun thu ch yu th mi c xem l c ngh nh cha ng thng ni  nht ngh tinh, nht thn vinh 3. Lng ngh BNPT: < R T \ ^ h j " $ . 0  6 8 " $ , .  * , 0 4 X Z HJ68x■#hh@CJOJQJaJo( hh@CJOJQJaJhhCJOJQJaJo(hhCJOJQJaJhh5CJOJQJaJDBTZl0dF!%%:' dx`gd dx`gd$xx`a$gd$xx`a$gd$dx`a$gd$xx`a$gd~~xzZ 48DFTVpr,. "RV`bhlDFLPlnrͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͽͫͽͽͽͽͽͽͽ%hh56CJOJQJaJo("hh56CJOJQJaJhhCJOJQJaJo(hhCJOJQJaJ hh@CJOJQJaJ#hh@CJOJQJaJo(<68$&.0jl02HJrt$&TV`djn*,HJ$&FHvxϻϻϻϻϻϻϻϻϻϻ&hh@CJOJQJaJho(#hh@CJOJQJaJhhhCJOJQJaJo(hhCJOJQJaJJ46F>BNPRThlrt:< 0!4! ""X"\"z"|"6#˻˻˻˫˻˻˻˻˻˻˻"hhCJOJQJaJho(hhCJOJQJaJhhhCJOJQJaJo(hhCJOJQJaJ#hh@CJOJQJaJh&hh@CJOJQJaJho(<6#8#P#R#####V$X$$$p%r%%%%%&&:&<&J&L&\&`&''r'v'''''''0(2(:(<((((((((((((()V)X)))))))* *|*~*******++0,κκκκκκκκκκκκκ&hh@CJOJQJaJho(#hh@CJOJQJaJhhhCJOJQJaJhhCJOJQJaJo(I:''(H,|..99NQQ:RRVLVXY[X_bcdddhvi.jjj dx`gd$xx`a$gd0,2,H,Z,\,,,-->-@-V-X-z-|---|......//2/4/////00D0H000001111111111H2J2P2T2j2l2~22222223.303:3>3˻˻˻˻˻˻˻˩"hh56CJOJQJaJhhCJOJQJaJo(hhCJOJQJaJ#hh@CJOJQJaJh&hh@CJOJQJaJho(B>3D3H3j3l333d4f444444455,5.5@5B555555566r6t666666677<7>7777777777788P8R8^8`88888880949\9^9t9v999NRNŶhhCJOJQJaJU"hh56CJOJQJaJ&hh@CJOJQJaJho(#hh@CJOJQJaJhHT khi nim lng v ngh trnh by trn y, chng ta s i vo vic nhn dng khi nim lng ngh. Khi nim ny c t lu i n nhm phn bit vi khi nim phng hi  khu vc  th m c im ni bt nht l trnh  v cng ngh lng ngh  khu vc nng thn vn mang nng hot ng th cng v gn vi sn xut nng nghip. Tuy nhin,  c mt khi nim y  v lng ngh cn thng nht mt s quan im sau: Mt lng c gi l lng ngh khi hi t 2 iu kin sau: - C mt s lng tng i cc h cng sn xut mt ngh; - Thu nhp do sn xut ngh mang li chim mt t trng ln trong tng thu nhp ca lng. Nh vy, khng phi bt k lng no c hot ng ngnh ngh cing gi l lng ngh m cn c qui nh mt s tiu chun nht nh. Vn  ny V Thng k Nng, Lm nghip v thu sn c qui nh trong phng n Tng iu tra Nng nghip nm 2001 v u ban ND tnh H Ty cing c ban hnh qui nh tm thi v lng ngh theo 4 tiu ch. Theo Ti y l vn  cn c s nghin cu trao i v tm hiu r hn. II. Thng k lng ngh Thng k lng ngh  nc ta l vn  ang c nhiu ngnh quan tm v mt s a phng  tin hnh iu tra thu thp s liu. Nhng do nhiu nguyn nhn khch quan v ch quan khc nhau, nht l mt s vn  phng php lun cha gii quyt c, nn cn nhiu vn  cn tip tc nghin cu. 1. Nn ly n v hnh chnh no lm lng ngh Nh phn tch trn khi  lng l mt phm tr lch s c nhiu thay i v khng gian v thi gian. Do vy khng th ly khi nim lng nh trc y m phi gn vi n v hnh chnh hin ti  nh ngh)a lng ngh. Vn  ny hin tn ti 2 loi kin. Th nht ly n v x lm n v c bn  tnh lng ngh, kin ny xut pht t thc t sau: L n v hnh chnh hon chnh qun l ton dn, ton din mi mt hot ng kinh t x hi. B my ca x c ngi theo di ghi chp thng qua ng k sn xut kinh doanh v ngnh ngh nn c ngun s liu. Tuy nhin vic xem mt x nh mt lng cing c phn cha n v qui m ca x kh ln v trong mt x c th c nhiu ngh, m theo cc tiu ch nhn dng hin hnh th rt t x t c. iu  dn n b st cc hot ng sn xut lng ngh. Loi kin th hai, ly lng trc y  lm n v lng ngh. Nhc im ln nht ca loi kin ny l  ch khng thng k c chnh xc s lng lng trong mt n v hnh chnh. Do vy khng th tnh ton cc ch tiu nh t l huyn, x c lng ngh chim bao nhiu phn trm trong tng s lng ca huyn, x. Hn na, khi nim  lng ch l tn gi theo l ci ch khng phi mt n v cp di ca x do  kh thu thp thng tin v hot ng ngh. Do vy, trong thng k lng ngh theo Ti ly thn/xm/bn lm n v thng k lng ngh l hp l nht. Nu theo quan im ny, th vic thng k lng ngh s c nhiu thun li hn. 2. Phi xc nh r cc tiu ch cng nhn lng ngh Qui nh ca TCTK trong Tng iu tra Nng nghip v Nng thn, cing nh qui nh ca U ban nhn dn tnh H Ty v tiu chun lng ngh nhn chung l khoa hc, nhng theo Ti v mc  v s lao ng v thu nhp c t 50% tr ln l cha hp l. Bi l chng ta xem xt hot ng ngnh ngh trong t hp cc hot ng  nng thn gm c trng trt v chn nui. Do vy, mc  theo ti nn h xung t 35% tr ln l c. Nu qui nh qu cao s b st phm vi v nu qui nh qu thp s kh thu thp ht s liu. 3. Phi xy dng c h thng ch tiu thng k thu thp s liu lng ngh Cing nh i vi cc l)nh vc sn xut khc, h thng ch tiu v hot ng lng ngh gm: - Yu t sn xut (lao ng, vn, nguyn liu, nhin liu, trang b cng ngh); - Kt qu sn xut; - Bo v mi trng sinh thi; - Tc ng ca ngnh ngh i vi cc ngnh sn xut khc. Nhng ni dung thng tin trn y s c c th ho trong cc phiu iu tra, hoc bo co thng k  thu thp thng tin v hot ng lng ngh gip cho cc cp qun l c c nhng thng tin cn thit v lng ngh (h thng ch tiu lng ngh xem bi ca Nguyn Tun Ngh)a ng trong Thng tin Khoa hc Thng k s 2/2004). 4. Phi nghin cu la chn cc phng php thu thp thng tin thch hp Hin nay hot ng ngnh ngh  nng thn ang pht trin v c tc dng gii quyt cng n vic lm to ra ngun thu nhp cho nhiu tng lp dn c. Song vic thu thp y  cc thng tin phn nh hot ng lng ngh cing l vic khng d. Do vy phi nghin cu kt hp hi ho gia hai hnh thc bo co v thng k. V Bo co Thng k c 6 thng mt ln thu thp cc ch tiu v s lng lng ngh phn theo n v hnh chnh v loi ngh, s lng lao ng v s h tham gia ngnh ngh c chia theo loi lao ng (chnh, ph& ) v gii tnh. V iu tra thng k, c th tin hnh theo mt s cch sau: - Mt l kt hp vi iu tra mc sng ch yu thu thp cc thng tin v kt qu sn xut kinh doanh v thu nhp ca cc h sn xut ngnh ngh - Hai l t chc iu tra chn mu theo quy m huyn  thu thp mt cch chi tit cc thng tin v lng ngh - Ba l: t chc iu tra kt hp vi mt s cuc iu tra trong nng nghip nh iu tra nng sut la, nng sut cy trng, chn nui,& y l vn  phc tp cn nghin cu  la chn hnh thc v phng php thch hp. III. Mt s khuyn ngh v y mnh thng k lng ngh Nh trn  trnh by thng k lng ngh l vn  mi phc tp nhng li rt cp thit v vy trong thi gian ti ngnh thng k cn: 1. T chc nghin cu hon thin cc vn  l lun lm c s  xy dng thng k lng ngh  Vit Nam nht l lm sng t khi nim  lng ngh 2. Vin Khoa hc Thng k cn phi hp cht ch vi v Phng php Ch  Thng k v cc v chuyn ngnh tin hnh kho st c rt kinh nghim  cc a phng c tin hnh thng k lng ngh  gii quyt nhng vn  phng php lun v phng php tnh v lng ngh 3. Cc kt qu nghin cu thng k lng ngh cn c trao i trn t Thng tin Khoa hc Thng k hoc t chc cc cuc hi tho  trng cu kin rng ri ca cc nh khoa hc v cn b thc t 4. Nghin cu h thng ch tiu thng k lng ngh m bo tnh khoa hc v thc tin 5. 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